The paper gives an algorithm, a procedure for calculation of aircraft noise, and its spread modeling. The performed investigations have provided guidelines that will become the first Russian official guiding document for assessing a risk from aviation noise to human health.
Biomonitoring is one among key elements of medical prophylactic measures within public health risk management system created in Sverdlovsk region, for residents of territories with chemically polluted environment. Biologic monitoring enables to determine levels of chemical load, to form risk groups among children and pregnant women for rehabilitation and health-imporving measures, and to evaluate efficiency of these measures.
In the past decade, a great number of risk assessment projects have been implemented; experience in using the risk-assessing methodology in sociohygienic monitoring, in the hygienic evaluation of a possible impact of new or rebuilt plants on human health, and in the estimation of natural and cost damages from the influence of environmental factors has been gained. Along with the legal aspects of using the risk-assessing methodology, there is a diversity of urgent and unsolved problems: a discrepancy between the hygienic standards and the risk-assessing criteria established in our country, recommended by international organizations, or used in the leading countries of the world; evaluation of exposures; availability of data on exposures in both individual regions and Russia as whole; development of methods for the assessment of damages and for the comparative assessment of risks, including such indices and their value terms as lost life years and life years with consideration of the severity of abnormalities.
The priority task of human health maintenance and improvement is risk management using the new economic concepts based on the assessment of potential and real human risks from exposure to poor environmental factors and on the estimation of cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness ratios. The application of economic tools to manage a human risk makes it possible to assess various measures both as a whole and their individual priority areas, to rank different scenarios in terms of their effectiveness, to estimate costs per unit of risk reduction and benefit increase (damage decrease).
A scheme is proposed to calculate the overall human health indices by the values of partial grouped parameters: demographic, environmental, environment-induced, total (including social) morbidity; socioeconomic and preset threshold levels of their qualitative assessment. This method has been used to estimate morbidity rates in 7 Saint Petersburg districts.
The paper presents some indices that characterize morbidity in the Moscow population, which suggest positive trends in the health status in all population groups. These include stabilization of overall morbidity rates; a down-increase in the incidence of respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma; a reduction in overall morbidity in infants of the first year of life, including a reduction in the incidence of life-threatening diseases (perinatal pathology and congenital malformations; a decrease in the incidence of alimentary diseases associated with social factors. The found positive changes reflect the efficiency of introduction of the sociohygienic monitoring (AHM) system. One of the mechanisms of introduction of AHM results is to submit data to the Moscow Government in the annual reports "On the Moscow population's health status" which cover demography, morbidity, female health, and the regional features of the population's health in relation to environmental factors. Based on information, managerial decisions and measures to improve the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation in Moscow are taken and implemented.