Skip header and navigation

Refine By

71 records – page 1 of 8.

[Actual problem of methodology and development of evidence-based health risk assessment associated with chemical exposure].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290154
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(8):711-6
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
S M Novikov
M V Fokin
T N Unguryanu
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(8):711-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control - standards
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - standards
Evidence-Based Practice
Hazardous Substances - analysis - standards
Humans
Hygiene - standards
Public Health - methods
Risk Assessment - methods - standards
Russia
Abstract
Paramount problems of the development of the assessment of population health risks associated with the chemical exposure in Russia are considered on the ground of critical analysis of reports devoted to methodological issues of the risk assessment and guidelines published since 2010. Causes of the lack in progress of risk assessment are discussed. The information of executed research revealed the significant retardation number of Russian publications devoted to the evidence-based health risk assessment compare to worldwide trend. The analysis of publications according to evidence-based health risk assessment in Russia in 1998 - 2012 demonstrated methodical problems to be leading to the underestimation of the real risk to population’s health. There are demonstrated directions in the renewal of methodology and practice of hygienic standardization on the basis of the risk assessment. The comparative analysis of values of uncertainty factors (modifying factors, conversion factors) used for extrapolation and accepted in different countries and organizations was made. The system of extrapolation coefficients of DNEL (Derive No-Effect Level) is presented. The leading principles of modern toxicology and risk assessment based on strict scientific proofs are showed. Criteria of evidence-based toxicology and risk assessment are presented.Among actual problems which demand their decision there are considered: the assessment of combined action in regulatory toxicology; expansion of spheres of the application of health risk assessment methodology; the improvement ofpreparation and certification of experts in the field of health risk assessment; need of check of dispersion models and their replacement by more modern models; the improvement of exposure assessment with taking into account the international requirements; the assessment of regional exposure factors; expansion of atmospheric air monitoring in all the large cities of Russia.
PubMed ID
29430892 View in PubMed
Less detail

Amalgam in dentistry. A survey of methods used at dental clinics in Norrbotten to decrease exposure to mercury vapour.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature216557
Source
Swed Dent J. 1995;19(1-2):55-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
1995
Author
E C Lönnroth
H. Shahnavaz
Author Affiliation
Department of Human Work Sciences, Luleå University, Sweden.
Source
Swed Dent J. 1995;19(1-2):55-64
Date
1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollution, Indoor - prevention & control
Dental Amalgam
Dental Assistants
Dental Hygienists
Dental Waste
Dentistry, Operative
Dentists
Dentists, Women
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Equipment Contamination - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Male
Medical Waste Disposal - methods
Middle Aged
Protective Devices - utilization
Questionnaires
Sweden
Ventilation
Abstract
A survey was conducted on the possible factors influencing exposure to mercury vapour during the handling of amalgam and amalgam contaminated products at dental clinics in Norrbotten, the northern part of Sweden, as well as the current methods being used to minimise, if not prevent such exposures. Increased room temperature, a serious problem when working with amalgam, was the most common complaint from the dental personnel reflecting the observation that ventilation in most clinics was far from being satisfactory. However, methods of treating amalgam-contaminated waste products as well as the classification of products as high- or low-risk wastes also differed a lot. The results further showed that although majority of the dental personnel showed concern on the possible hazards of mercury vapour exposure and were interested in having the level of mercury vapour measured in their clinics, very few had access to any protective equipment against it. And among the few who had some forms of protective wear, most found the equipment disturbing and disruptive of work performance.
PubMed ID
7597632 View in PubMed
Less detail

An update on risk communication in the Arctic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289269
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
2016
Author
Eva-Maria Krümmel
Andrew Gilman
Author Affiliation
Inuit Circumpolar Council, Ottawa, Canada; ekruemmel@scientissime.com.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2016; 75:33822
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Communicable Disease Control - organization & administration
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food Contamination
Health Communication
Humans
Inuits
Needs Assessment - organization & administration
Public Health
Abstract
Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma". This article gives an update on health risk communication in the Arctic region. It briefly summarizes some research on risk communication methodologies as well as approaches to an evaluation of the outcomes of risk communication initiatives. It provides information on specific initiatives in several Arctic countries, and particularly those that were directed at Indigenous populations. This article also summarizes some international versus local risk communication activities and the complexity of developing and delivering messages designed for different audiences. Finally, the potential application of social media for risk communication and a summary of "best practices" based on published literature and a survey of Inuit in a few Arctic countries are described.
Several of the risk communication initiatives portrayed in this article indicate that there is only limited awareness of the outcome of risk communication messages. In some cases, risk communication efforts appear to have been successful, at least when effectiveness is measured in an indirect way, for example, by lower contaminant levels. However, due to missing effectiveness evaluation studies, uncertainty remains as to whether a specific risk communication method was successful and could be clearly linked to behavioural changes that resulted in decreased contaminant exposure.
Notes
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Feb;122(2):178-86 PMID 24345328
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2010 Oct 15;408(22):5165-234 PMID 20728918
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 Jul 10;71:18594 PMID 22789518
Cites: Arctic Med Res. 1988;47 Suppl 1:159-62 PMID 3152417
Cites: Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013 Aug;60(4):345-50 PMID 22747976
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Oct;111(13):1660-4 PMID 14527847
Cites: Risk Anal. 1994 Feb;14(1):35-45 PMID 8146401
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 Jul 10;71:18588 PMID 22789516
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 Jul 10;71:18592 PMID 22789517
Cites: Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1989 Nov;43(5):641-6 PMID 2508801
Cites: Risk Anal. 1998 Oct;18(5):649-59 PMID 9853397
Cites: Occup Environ Med. 2003 Sep;60(9):693-5 PMID 12937194
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1999 Jan-Feb;54(1):40-7 PMID 10025415
Cites: J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1999;(25):15-20 PMID 10854451
Cites: Annu Rev Public Health. 2009;30:273-92 PMID 19296777
Cites: Risk Anal. 2009 May;29(5):729-42 PMID 19220800
Cites: Am Psychol. 1992 Sep;47(9):1102-14 PMID 1329589
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 Jul 17;71:18591 PMID 22818717
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Oct;118(10):1434-8 PMID 20562056
Cites: J Health Commun. 1996 Apr-Jun;1(2):197-217 PMID 10947360
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012 Jul 27;71:19003 PMID 22868192
Cites: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2013 Aug 05;72:null PMID 23984297
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2015 Mar 15;509-510:248-59 PMID 25135671
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 1992 Jul 15;122(1-2):247-78 PMID 1514105
PubMed ID
27974140 View in PubMed
Less detail

[APPLICATION OF BIOMONITORING METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270361
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(7):85-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
I N Ilchenko
S M Lyapunov
O I Okina
T V Karamysheva
A N Kartasheva
Source
Gig Sanit. 2015;94(7):85-9
Date
2015
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods - standards
Environmental Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis - classification
Hazardous Substances - adverse effects - analysis - classification
Humans
Risk Assessment - methods
Russia
Abstract
In this article there are presented the current views on the technology for the assessment of the exposure to chemical pollutants with the use of the methodology of human biomonitoring and the main advantages of the latter are highlighted. There are presented main problems of the implementation of biomonitoring studies in Russia such as: beginning with the lack of the national system of the biomonitoring, and accomplishing with the inconsistency in the data within the country, the inability to assess the trend according to levels of exposure in the regional or national context. Due to the inconvenience of the Russian regulatory basis on human biomonitoring, there is persisted technological backwardness in terms of the delivery of the design, presentation and evaluation of research results, which results in the decline of the significance of biomonitoring for public health in the country. There is preserved a need for standardization and harmonization of methods and procedures of human biomonitoring (HBM) in Russia with international requirements. A serious concern is the lack of Russian programs on standardization of procedures and interlaboratcy comparison of results according to biomarkers of the exposure, the insufficient involvement of national laboratories in international programs of the comparison, the difficulties with the acquisition of standard samples of the compositionfor different environmental pollutants in biological tissues. The restraint ofthe development of HBM in the Russian Federation is caused by a complex of reasons. The most urgent task is the development of the national concept of the system with subsequent formation of technological, institutional and organizational framework of biomonitoring, as well as the improvement of Russian normative-methodical base.
PubMed ID
26856149 View in PubMed
Less detail

Applying Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research toward a critical analysis of childhood lead poisoning in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145417
Source
ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2010 Jan-Mar;33(1):E1-16
Publication Type
Article
Author
Amélie Perron
Kelly A O'Grady
Author Affiliation
School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. amelie.perron@uottawa.ca
Source
ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2010 Jan-Mar;33(1):E1-16
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Child Welfare - statistics & numerical data
Data Interpretation, Statistical
Ecology
Ecosystem
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Health - organization & administration
Health services needs and demand
Housing
Humans
Knowledge
Lead Poisoning - epidemiology - prevention & control
Models, Nursing
Nursing Research - organization & administration
Primary Prevention
Research Design
Risk assessment
United States - epidemiology
Vulnerable Populations
Abstract
Occurrences of childhood lead poisoning resulting from exposure to residential sources of lead is an underresearched area in Canada. Dixon and Dixon's Integrative Model for Environmental Health Research substantiates this claim by grouping Canadian research on this health topic into the model's 4 domains: physiological, vulnerability, epistemological, and health protection. This process is useful not only for identifying research gaps within the Canadian context but also in setting the groundwork for a future critical analysis to illuminate the sociopolitical and economic influences that shape healthcare knowledge, and ultimately, influence how healthcare providers and policy makers produce and use this information.
PubMed ID
20154520 View in PubMed
Less detail

[A scientific providing for the system of hygienic optimization and anti-epidemic safety of rail ridership].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112713
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Jan-Feb;(1):26-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
M F Vil'k
L P Korotich
V. Polyakova
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Jan-Feb;(1):26-9
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Air Pollution, Indoor - prevention & control
Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Humans
Hygiene
Occupational Exposure - prevention & control
Occupational Health
Railroads
Russia - epidemiology
Sanitation - methods
Abstract
The system of scientific and reasonable measures for hygienic and anti-epidemic providing of rail ridership is elaborated. The legal and methodical base for precautionary and current sanitary inspection in the field of hygiene and epidemiology of ridership has been created, standard and methodical documents have been introduced in practice of medical sanitary health services of the railroads and accepted to realization by the design, car-building and car-repair organizations. Sanitary and hygienic monitoring for rail ridership, including control for sanitary, hygienic and microbiological indices of the air environment of passenger and service premises of stations and passenger trains, and also control for indices of health of the workers providing ridership, with use of pre-nosological symptoms of pathology is organized. Features of a bacterial aero-plankton of passenger objects are revealed. The increase of indices of bacterial pollution of air in passenger objects during the summer-autumn periods of year in comparison with winter period is established. Direct relationship between levels of bacterial air pollution of passenger rooms of stations and integrated indices of anti-infectious stability of an organism of workers of the railway stations serving ridership, and also number of persons with the changed indices of the immune status is revealed.
PubMed ID
23805688 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Assessment of a risk to health as a way of reducing congenital and hereditary pathology in children]

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81674
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 May-Jun;(3):4-6
Publication Type
Article
Author
Antonov A V
Source
Gig Sanit. 2006 May-Jun;(3):4-6
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abnormalities - epidemiology - prevention & control
Child
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Environmental monitoring
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Risk assessment
Siberia - epidemiology
Urban Population
Abstract
Based on the data available in the literature and his own findings, the author determines the urgency of study of environment-dependent diseases in a poor ecological area. The analytical survey presents data available about the ecological situation in the town of Omsk, a center of chemical and oil-refining industries of Western Siberia from 1997 to 2003. Particular emphasis is laid on a child's responses to the combined exposure to unfavorable environmental factors. The signs characterizing ecopathology are considered and the main principles of the treatment and prevention of environment-dependent diseases are given.
PubMed ID
16808392 View in PubMed
Less detail

Auditory perception with ear and cold weather face protection worn in combination.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166804
Source
Mil Med. 2006 Oct;171(10):976-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2006
Author
Sharon M Abel
Patricia Odell
Author Affiliation
Human Factors Research and Engineering Section, Defence Research and Development Canada-Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3M 3B9.
Source
Mil Med. 2006 Oct;171(10):976-81
Date
Oct-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Auditory Threshold
Canada
Cold Temperature
Ear - physiology
Ear Protective Devices - utilization
Environmental Exposure - prevention & control
Face - physiology
Female
Hearing Tests
Humans
Male
Materials Testing
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - psychology
Pilot Projects
Prospective Studies
Protective Clothing - utilization
Abstract
The effects on hearing thresholds, sound attenuation, and consonant discrimination of wearing a balaclava under hearing-protecting earmuffs were studied. This combination is commonly worn during cold weather military operations. One group of 20 normal-hearing adults (10 male and 10 female subjects) was tested. Within-subject measurements were made of diffuse-field hearing thresholds from 0.25 kHz to 8 kHz and consonant discrimination in quiet with the ears unoccluded and protected with the earmuffs alone and with the balaclava worn full face or rolled. Attenuation was derived from the protected and unoccluded thresholds at each frequency. When the balaclava was worn full face, attenuation decreased by 16 to 18 dB, relative to the muff alone, below 6.3 kHz. With the balaclava worn as a cap, there was an inverted U-shaped decrement in attenuation of 18 to 27 dB from 0.25 Hz to 4 kHz. Consonant discrimination decreased by 7% with the muffs alone. These findings underscore the importance of assessing protective equipment under the conditions in which it will be worn.
PubMed ID
17076450 View in PubMed
Less detail

71 records – page 1 of 8.