The relevance of the study on the Gydansky Peninsula lies in poor knowledge and inaccessibility of the territory, planned intensive industrial development of the Gydansky Peninsula, in 2011 there were received licenses for the exploration of license areas at the peninsula up to 2031. Industrial development will inevitably lead to certain environmental shifts, emission of the harmful substances into biosphere, the accumulation of anthropogenic pollutants in soil and water sources. The proposed development of the territory of the Peninsula Gydan sets the task of assessment of the impact of gas and oil production in conditions of the far North on health, as well indigenous persons as employees recruited to this of the region. One of the informative approaches to the assessment of population health is the assessment of the cytogenetic status with the use of noninvasive analysis of buccal epithelium. The aim of the study is to determine the cytogenetic status of the inhabitants of the village of Antipayuta of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug for the assessment of the impact of environmental factors on the health of the population at the present stage of the industrial development of the territory. Samples of buccal epithelium of 81 alien and indigenous people of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district were the object of the investigation. There was performed the analysis of indices of cells of buccal epithelium of the residents living in the village in comparison with the control group. The analysis of samples was performed on a Nikon Eclipse E100 microscope. For the assessment of the cytogenetic status of the individual there was used the proposed by Sycheva L. P. (2012-Index of accumulation of cytogenetic damages (Iac). It is shown that the frequency of occurrence of micronucleus and nuclear protrusions does not exceed the performance of the control group. The index of accumulation of cytogenetic damage for the population of the village is 0.78±0.07% and corresponds to a low level. The analysis of indices of buccal epithelial cells of residents living in rural areas was performed in the comparison with the control group The prevalence rate of cells with micronuclei and protrusions were shown to account of 14.6% andfail to exceed indices in the control group. Accumulation index of cytogenetic damages for the village population is 0.78 ± 0.07 % and corresponds to the low level. The amount of cells with micronuclei and protrusions in the current study is by 14.6% lower than the average of the control group. The intensity of proliferative processes and apoptosis in the comparison groups occurs evenly.
Evaluation of mutagenic activity--an indispensable element of the toxicological characteristics of chemicals in their hygienic regulation. In the article there is performed an analysis of the adopted in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and in Russia guidance documents on methods of assessment of the mutagenic properties of chemicals. In the OECD there are 17 manuals, each of which describes a single method, in Russia there were approved five guidance documents for specific groups of chemicals (drugs, pesticides, nanomaterials, substances normalized in the water and the air), which represent the basic and auxiliary methods of testing mutagens. Basic methods aimed to the evaluation of gene, chromosomal and genomic mutations include: assessment of gene mutations in bacteria, methods for estimating mutations in cell cultures of human and mammals in vitro, methods for inspecting mutations in somatic and germ cells of mammals in vivo. Analysis of Russian documents shows that the protocols of basic tests of assessment of the mutagenic activity are close to the protocols of the OECD. It is necessary to publish guidance documents on tests of assessment of the mutagenic activity of chemicals harmonized with the OECD documents.
The study have been conducted in settlements located near oilfields of the Nizhnevartovsk area, the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district (Russian Federation). There were examined 802 persons aged of from 18 to 56 years not proximately employed in processes of the oil extraction. Control group was consisted of329 residents of the north of Tomsk Region living in the area without any polluting environment industry. By using such methods of analysis as micronucleus test in human buccal cells, the xenobiotic biotransformation of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphism, as well as the assessment of oil contamination of local drinking water there was executed the hygienic assessment of ecology in the settlements located near oil fields. The elevated rate of cytogenetic disorders was established to be observed most of all in the residents of this region, as well as in persons recently moved to this area. Most significant deviations from the control according to the micronucleus test were detected in individuals with the GSTM1 (0) /GSTT1(0) genotype. In the control group no such consistent pattern was seen.
Blood lead levels (BLLs) were measured in the adult Inuit population of Nunavut, Northern Canada, during the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) in 2007-2008. Approximately 10% of the adult participants had BLL over the Health Canada's guidance of 100µg/L.
1) To repeat the measurement of BLL among the IHS participants with high BLL and household members including pregnant women and children under 10years of age; 2) to measure lead (Pb) concentrations in environmental samples to identify potential sources and 3) to explore how Pb from environmental samples contributes to BLL using Pb stable isotopic analyses.
Blood samples were collected from 100 adults and 56 children in 2012. A total of 169 environmental samples (tap water, house dust, paint, country food, soil, and ammunition) were collected from 14 houses from three communities where the IHS participants had the highest BLL. Total Pb concentrations and Pb isotope mass balance were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).
The geometric mean of BLL was 43.1µg/L; BLL increased with age and was higher in adults than children (71.1 vs. 17.5µg/L). Median Pb concentrations in water (1.9µg/L) and dust (27.1µg/m(2) for wiped dust, 32.6mg/kg for vacuum dust coarse fraction, and 141.9mg/kg for vacuum dust fine fraction) were generally higher than in other parts of Canada. Median Pb concentrations of food and soil coarse and fine fractions were low (36.6µg/kg, 5.4mg/kg and 11.8mg/kg respectively); paint chips exceeded the Canadian guidelines in two houses (median: 3.8mg/kg). Discriminant analyses and isotope ratio analyses showed that ammunition and house dust are major sources of Pb in this study population.
Analyses of Pb stable isotopes are useful to identify the routes of exposure to Pb. This approach can contribute to develop targeted public health programmes to prevent Pb exposure.
Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still the major dose-forming product in rural Russian settlements (its contribution to internal dose in forest-remote settlements is above 70%); however, in near-forest settlements, the contribution of mushrooms to the internal dose is comparable to the contribution from milk.
Communities impacted by fine-particle air pollution (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) from forest fires and residential wood burning require effective, evidence-based exposure-reduction strategies. Public health recommendations during smoke episodes typically include advising community members to remain indoors and the use of air cleaners, yet little information is available on the effectiveness of these measures. Our study attempted to address the following objectives: to measure indoor infiltration factor (F(inf)) of PM(2.5) from forest fires/wood smoke, to determine the effectiveness of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaners in reducing indoor PM(2.5), and to analyze the home determinants of F(inf) and air cleaner effectiveness (ACE). We collected indoor/outdoor 1-min PM(2.5) averages and 48-h outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples for 21 winter and 17 summer homes impacted by wood burning and forest fire smoke, respectively, during 2004-2005. A portable HEPA filter air cleaner was operated indoors with the filter removed for one of two sampling days. Particle F(inf) and ACE were calculated for each home using a recursive model. We found mean F(inf)+/-SD was 0.27+/-0.18 and 0.61+/-0.27 in winter (n=19) and summer (n=13), respectively, for days when HEPA filters were not used. Lower F(inf)+/-SD values of 0.10+/-0.08 and 0.19+/-0.20 were found on corresponding days when HEPA filters were in place. Mean+/-SD ACE ([F(inf) without filter-F(inf) with filter]/F(inf) without filter) in winter and summer were 55+/-38% and 65+/-35%, respectively. Number of windows and season predicted F(inf) (P
Serum levels of zincum, lead, nickel and mercury decrease in a row ; average levels of manganese, cobalt, copper and arsenic are higher among females; in pregnant women serum levels of most metals are the lowest. If compared to the WHO. reference, levels of metals in whole blood demonstrated no excess in cobalt and cadmium, nearly absent - in arsenic, increased percentage of excess (but insignificant values) in copper and zincum, extremely high percentage of excess (and significant values) in manganese and nickel. Maximal manganese concentrations in blood reach 300 micrograms/I, those of nickel - 100 micrograms/I. Average blood concentrations of mercury in the examinees do not reach the most severe (S micrograms/1), and shares of men and women with blood concentrations of mercury over this limit are relatively small. Average blood concentrations of lead in the examinees do not reach lower allowable level (50 micrograms/1).
Dynamics of soil contamination, food chain, and radiation doses to population at the East-Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) and the Karachay Radioactive Trace (KRT) are reviewed. Gamma spectrometric analysis of samples was performed according to standard methodology; 90Sr was determined by the extraction method. Over 80% of radionuclides in soil are contained in the upper 20-cm layer. Biologically available forms of Sr and insoluble forms of 137Cs are predominant. The main reasons for reduction in milk contamination are radioactive decay and sequestration of radionuclides in soil. Current annual intake of radionuclides with food: EURT--310 Bq (90Sr), KRT--324 Bq (90Sr) and 732 Bq (137Cs).
After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose aversion (hence risk reduction) is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is optimal when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, it is desirable to have a software tool that compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple diagnosis leading to optimized decorporation treatment strategies. In its most simple application, the software is a large database of radionuclide decorporation strategies and treatments. The software can also be used in clinical interactive mode, in which the user inputs the radionuclide, estimated activity, route of intake and time since exposure. The software makes suggestions as to the urgency of treatment (i.e., triage) and the suggested therapy. Current developments include risk assessment which impacts the potential risk of delivered therapy and resource allocation of therapeutic agents. The software, developed for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is titled MEDECOR (MEdical DECORporation). The MEDECOR tool was designed for use on both personal digital assistant and laptop computer environments. The tool was designed using HTML/Jscript, to allow for ease of portability amongst different computing platforms. This paper presents the features of MEDECOR, results of testing at a major NATO exercise, and future development of this tool into MEDECOR2.
In recent years, in sanitary science the interest in issues of young people has dramatically increased, that has been actualized by the necessity of a new objective assessment of the role of the youth in modern sanitary-ecological, sociocultural and economic processes. In this regard, a special interest is aroused by young students, the health of whom is determined largely by the condition of the habitat. So far complex assessment ofriskfactors in urbanized areas, prioritization of impacts, the establishment ofpriority impacts, the detection of informative territorial environmentally dependent indices ofpopulation health are presented to be important tasks in the solution of the regional challenges. The aim of this work was the assessment of the state of health of students of the Bratsk State University, residing in conditions of ecological trouble. In the territory of the city of Bratsk the environmental situation is characterized by long term multi-component air pollution with highly toxic vehicular and industrial emissions. In the work throughout the 4 years following-up there was executed an assessment of the physical development of students, there was determined structure and revealed the an increased level of morbidity rate of students of Bratsk state University in terms of educational space, which is characteristic for territories of ecological trouble in the city of Bratsk. Parameters of physical development of students in dynamics of training were established to be not liable to variation. It confirms the stability of the morphological signs as compared to functional ones. In the analysis of dynamics of indices of the harmonicity ofphysical development there was revealed a gain in the proportion of harmoniously developed students by the end of training. Physiometric indices of students to the fourth course of training were characterized by the increase offunctional capabilities of the respiratory system.The indices of the cardiovascular system performance had a tendency to the growth of the hypertensive response in boys and the increase in the number of people with normotensive response to physical stress by the end of training. To the IV course of training there was observed the increase in the number of young boys with stringency of mechanisms of adaptation to stress, whereas in young girls satisfactory adaptation was seen.