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Addressing historic environmental exposures along the Alaska Highway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107704
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
  1 document  
Author
Anna Godduhn
Lawrence Duffy
Author Affiliation
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA
Source
Pages 787-795 in N. Murphy and A. Parkinson, eds. Circumpolar Health 2012: Circumpolar Health Comes Full Circle. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, August 5-10, 2012. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2013;72 (Suppl 1):787-795
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Animals, Wild
Diet - adverse effects
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - history
Fishes
Food Contamination
Health status
History, 20th Century
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Pilot Projects
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Risk factors
Thyroid Diseases - epidemiology
Abstract
A World War II defense site at Northway, Alaska, was remediated in the 1990s, leaving complex questions regarding historic exposures to toxic waste. This article describes the context, methods, limitations and findings of the Northway Wild Food and Health Project (NWFHP).
The NWFHP comprised 2 pilot studies: the Northway Wild Food Study (NWFS), which investigated contaminants in locally prioritized traditional foods over time, and the Northway Health Study (NHS), which investigated locally suspected links between resource uses and health problems.
This research employed mixed methods. The NWFS reviewed remedial documents and existing data. The NHS collected household information regarding resource uses and health conditions by questionnaire and interview. NHS data represent general (yes or no) personal knowledge that was often second hand. Retrospective cohort comparisons were made of the reported prevalence of 7 general health problems between groups based on their reported (yes or no) consumption of particular resources, for 3 data sets (existing, historic and combined) with a two-tailed Fisher's Exact Test in SAS (n = 325 individuals in 83 households, 24 of which no longer exist).
The NWFS identified historic pathways of exposure to petroleum, pesticides, herbicides, chlorinated byproducts of disinfection and lead from resources that were consumed more frequently decades ago and are not retrospectively quantifiable. The NHS found complex patterns of association between reported resource uses and cancer and thyroid-, reproductive-, metabolic- and cardiac problems.
Lack of detail regarding medical conditions, undocumented histories of exposure, time lapsed since the release of pollution and changes to health and health care over the same period make this exploratory research. Rather than demonstrate causation, these results document the legitimacy of local suspicions and warrant additional investigation. This article presents our findings, with discussion of limitations related to study design and limitations that are inherent to such research.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23984298 View in PubMed
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Air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma in Windsor, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126951
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eric Lavigne
Paul J Villeneuve
Sabit Cakmak
Author Affiliation
Environmental Issues Division, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON. eric.lavigne@phac-aspc.gc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2012 Jan-Feb;103(1):4-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Over Studies
Emergency Service, Hospital - utilization
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Ontario - epidemiology
Particle Size
Risk
Seasons
Abstract
The city of Windsor is recognized to have poor air quality in comparison with other Canadian cities. However, relatively few studies have evaluated associations between day-to-day fluctuations in air pollution levels and respiratory health in Windsor. In this study, we examined associations between short-term changes in ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma in Windsor.
A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 3,728 ED visits for asthma that occurred in Windsor area hospitals between 2002 and 2009. Daily air pollution levels for the region were estimated using Environment Canada's network of fixed-site monitors. ED visits were identified through the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS). Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression, and were adjusted for the confounding influence of daily number of influenza ED visits and weather variables using natural spline functions.
Statistically significant associations were observed between ambient air pollution levels and ED visits for asthma in Windsor. Effects were particularly pronounced among children 2 to 14 years of age between April and September. Namely, increases in the interquartile range with 1-day lagged exposure to SO2, NO2 and CO levels were associated with increased risks of an asthma visit of 19%, 25% and 36%, respectively.
Exposure in Windsor to ambient air pollution increases the risk of ED visits for asthma, particularly among children.
PubMed ID
22338320 View in PubMed
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Analysis of rapid alternating movements in Cree subjects exposed to methylmercury and in subjects with neurological deficits.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203234
Source
Environ Res. 1999 Jan;80(1):64-79
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1999
Author
A. Beuter
A. de Geoffroy
R. Edwards
Author Affiliation
Laboratoire de Neurocinétique, Département de Kinanthropologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, Succursale Centre-ville, Montréal, Quebec, CP 8888, Canada.
Source
Environ Res. 1999 Jan;80(1):64-79
Date
Jan-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Indians, North American
Methylmercury Compounds - adverse effects - analysis
Middle Aged
Movement - drug effects
Movement Disorders - etiology - physiopathology
Parkinson Disease - physiopathology
Psychomotor Performance - drug effects
Quebec
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
To quantify rapid alternating movements (RAMs) we used a simple prototype developed in our laboratory that requires the subject to rotate two hand-held foam spheres connected to optical encoders via flexible rods. Ninety-six participants, including 30 control subjects, 36 Cree subjects exposed to methylmercury, 21 subjects with Parkinson's disease, 6 subjects with cerebellar deficits, and 3 subjects with essential tremor, were involved in the study (though data for 5 were later removed). Twelve characteristics were developed and calculated from the raw data. Conditions examined included two hands at natural cadence (NC2), right and left hands separately at fast cadence (FCl), and both hands at fast cadence (FC2). Two ratios (FC2/NC2) and (FC2/FC1) combining these conditions were also examined. Test-retest reliability was >0.80 for most characteristics but was
PubMed ID
9931228 View in PubMed
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[An assessment of the immune status of the children population as a marker of technogenic pollution of the environment].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290297
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(12):1129-33
Publication Type
Journal Article
Author
L A Stepanenko
M F Savchenkov
S V Ilina
E V Anganova
E D Savilov
Source
Gig Sanit. 2016; 95(12):1129-33
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
B-Lymphocytes - immunology
Child
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Immunocompetence - drug effects
Male
Monitoring, Immunologic - methods - statistics & numerical data
Population
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell - analysis
School Health Services - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Siberia - epidemiology
T-Lymphocytes - immunology
Abstract
This article describes results of the immunological study of school-aged children residing in cities with different levels of the technogenic air pollution. Children from cities with the highest level of the technogenic pollution had a high number of immature neutrophils (band cells) and eosinophils. The children living in these ecologically unfavorable areas have presented a reduction of T-cell antigen receptor CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD16, CD95. This indicates to that both T-cell and B-cell immunity is suppressed. The decline of the phagocytic function in neutrophils indicates to the suppression of the nonspecific host defense mechanisms also.
PubMed ID
29446280 View in PubMed
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An investigation of social and pharmacological exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke as possible predictors of perceived nicotine dependence, smoking susceptibility, and smoking expectancies among never-smoking youth.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134104
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Oct;13(10):926-33
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2011
Author
Simon Racicot
Jennifer J McGrath
Jennifer O'Loughlin
Author Affiliation
Pediatric Public Health Psychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. racicot.simon@gmail.com
Source
Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Oct;13(10):926-33
Date
Oct-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Canada
Child
Cotinine - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Forecasting
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Saliva - chemistry
Smoking - psychology
Social Environment
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects
Tobacco Use Disorder - psychology
Abstract
Recent studies evidenced that adolescent never-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) endorsed nicotine dependence symptoms. Other studies showed that SHS exposure measured with biomarkers among never-smokers independently predicted withdrawal sensations and prospective smoking initiation. The aim of the present study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating whether social and pharmacological measures of SHS exposure predicted precursors to smoking among never-smoking adolescents.
Participants included 327 never-smokers aged 11-15 years attending sixth or seventh grade in French language schools in Montréal, Canada. They completed self-report questionnaires measuring their smoking status, social smoke exposure (number of smokers in their environment and number of situations where SHS exposure occurs), and precursors to smoking initiation (smoking expectancies, perceived nicotine dependence, and smoking susceptibility). Each participant provided a saliva sample from which cotinine biomarkers were derived to measure pharmacological exposure to SHS.
When predictors were modeled individually, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p = .05), smoking susceptibility (p = .001), and expected benefits (p = .05), whereas number of situations predicted smoking susceptibility (p = .01). When predictors were modeled simultaneously, number of smokers predicted perceived nicotine dependence (p = .01), smoking susceptibility (p = .01), and expected benefits (p = .05).
Social smoke exposure was a predictor for smoking precursors. Pharmacological exposure to SHS did not predict smoking precursors, which may be partly attributable to the low cotinine values observed in our sample. Suggestions for improved pharmacological measurement of SHS and implications for public health are discussed.
PubMed ID
21622492 View in PubMed
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Approaches for evaluating the relevance of multiroute exposures in establishing guideline values for drinking water contaminants.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature155267
Source
J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008 Jul-Sep;26(3):300-16
Publication Type
Article
Author
Kannan Krishnan
Richard Carrier
Author Affiliation
GRIS/DSEST, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. kannan.krishnan@umontreal.ca
Source
J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008 Jul-Sep;26(3):300-16
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Baths - adverse effects - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Child
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Models, Biological
Risk Assessment - methods
Skin Absorption
Time Factors
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Pollution - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Water Purification - methods - standards
Water Supply - analysis - standards
Abstract
In establishing the guideline values for chemical contaminants in drinking water, the contribution of inhalation and dermal routes associated with showering/bathing needs to be evaluated. The present article reviews the current approaches available for evaluating the importance of inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to drinking water contaminants (DWCs) and integrates them within a 2-tier approach. Accordingly, tier 1 would evaluate whether the dermal or inhalation route is likely to contribute to at least 10% of the dose received from ingestion of drinking water (i.e., 0.15 L-equivalent per day based on the daily water intake rate of 1.5 L/day typically used in Health Canada assessments). Based on the route-specific exposure parameters (i.e., area of skin exposed, effective skin permeability coefficient [K(p)], and air to water concentration ratio during use conditions [F(air-water)], breathing rate, duration of contact, and fraction absorbed), it was determined that for DWCs with K(p) less than 0.024 cm/hr and F(air - water) less than 0.0063, the dermal and inhalation routes during showering or bathing are unlikely to contribute significantly to the total dose. For DWCs with K(p) value equal to or greater than 0.025 cm/hr, dermal notation is implied, and as such, tier 2 calculation of L-equivalent associated with dermal exposure needs to be performed. Similarly, for DWCs with F(air-water) greater than 0.00063, inhalation notation is implied, and detailed evaluation of the L-equivalent associated with inhalation exposure (i.e., tier 2) is suggested. In general, data from human volunteer studies, observational measurements, and targeted modeling studies are useful for deriving L-equivalents, reflective of the magnitude of dose received via dermal and inhalation routes relative to the oral route. However, in resource-limited situations, these approaches can be integrated within a 2-tier approach for prioritizing and providing quantitative evaluations of the relevance of dermal and inhalation routes for developing exposure guidelines for DWCs.
PubMed ID
18781539 View in PubMed
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Are pharmaceuticals potent environmental pollutants? Part I: environmental risk assessments of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83136
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jul 1;364(1-3):67-87
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2006
Author
Carlsson Carina
Johansson Anna-Karin
Alvan Gunnar
Bergman Kerstin
Kühler Thomas
Author Affiliation
Swedish Medical Products Agency, PO Box 26, SE-751 03 Uppsala, Sweden. carina.carlsson@mpa.se
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jul 1;364(1-3):67-87
Date
Jul-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drug Industry
Ecosystem
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Pharmaceutical Preparations - adverse effects - analysis
Public Health
Risk assessment
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
As part of achieving national environmental goals, the Swedish Government commissioned an official report from the Swedish Medical Products Agency on environmental effects of pharmaceuticals. Considering half-lives/biodegradability, environmental occurrence, and Swedish sales statistics, 27 active pharmaceutical ingredients were selected for environmental hazard and risk assessments. Although there were large data gaps for many of the compounds, nine ingredients were identified as dangerous for the aquatic environment. Only the sex hormones oestradiol and ethinyloestradiol were considered to be associated with possible aquatic environmental risks. We conclude that risk for acute toxic effects in the environment with the current use of active pharmaceutical ingredients is unlikely. Chronic environmental toxic effects, however, cannot be excluded due to lack of chronic ecotoxicity data. Measures to reduce potential environmental impact posed by pharmaceutical products must be based on knowledge on chronic ecotoxic effects of both active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as excipients. We believe that the impact pharmaceuticals have on the environment should be further studied and be given greater attention such that informed assessments of hazards as well as risks can be done.
PubMed ID
16257037 View in PubMed
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Are pharmaceuticals potent environmental pollutants? Part II: environmental risk assessments of selected pharmaceutical excipients.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature83131
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jul 1;364(1-3):88-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1-2006
Author
Carlsson Carina
Johansson Anna-Karin
Alvan Gunnar
Bergman Kerstin
Kühler Thomas
Author Affiliation
Swedish Medical Products Agency, PO Box 26, SE-751 03 Uppsala, Sweden. carina.carlsson@mpa.se
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Jul 1;364(1-3):88-95
Date
Jul-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drug Industry
Ecosystem
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis - legislation & jurisprudence
Environmental Monitoring - legislation & jurisprudence - methods
Excipients - adverse effects - analysis
Industrial Waste - adverse effects
Pharmaceutical Preparations - adverse effects - analysis
Public Health
Risk assessment
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - adverse effects - analysis
Abstract
As part of achieving national environmental goals, the Swedish Government commissioned a report from the Swedish Medical Products Agency on environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics and hygiene products. Five excipients used in pharmaceutical products were selected for environmental risk assessments, applying the computer-based model EUSES. Docusate sodium was identified as a possible risk for sediment-dwelling organisms when taking the total amount used into account. Although, experimental toxicity data on sediment-dwelling organism and data on concentrations in sediments are still required before firm conclusions regarding the environmental risk can be made. The environmental risks posed by excipients used in pharmaceutical products are likely to be negligible. This study identifies that knowledge gaps regarding environmental risks posed by pharmaceutical excipients are evident.
PubMed ID
16260028 View in PubMed
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Arsenic concentrations in prediagnostic toenails and the risk of bladder cancer in a cohort study of male smokers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177829
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 1;160(9):853-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1-2004

The association between endotoxin and lung function among children and adolescents living in a rural area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128591
Source
Can Respir J. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):e89-94
Publication Type
Article
Author
Joshua A Lawson
James A Dosman
Donna C Rennie
Jeremy Beach
Stephen C Newman
Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. josh.lawson@usask.ca
Source
Can Respir J. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):e89-94
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cotinine - analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Rural Health
Saliva - chemistry
Saskatchewan
Sex Factors
Spirometry
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Vital Capacity
Abstract
BACKGROUND/
Knowledge of the effects of domestic endotoxin on children's lung function is limited. The association between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze and lung function among school-age children (six to 18 years of age) was examined. The interaction between endotoxin and other personal and environmental characteristics and lung function was also assessed.
A case-control study was conducted in and around the rural community of Humboldt, Saskatchewan, between 2005 and 2007. Parents of cases reported either doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the previous year. Controls were randomly selected from those not reporting these conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and conditions, while spirometry was used to measure lung function including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Dust collected from the child's play area floor and the child's mattress was used to quantify endotoxin, and saliva was collected to quantify cotinine levels and assess tobacco smoke exposure.
There were 102 cases and 207 controls included in the present study. Lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with higher mattress endotoxin load among female cases (beta=-0.25, SE=0.07 [P
Notes
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PubMed ID
22187693 View in PubMed
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148 records – page 1 of 15.