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Disinfection and removal of human pathogenic bacteria in arctic waste stabilization ponds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature297766
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32881-32893
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Yannan Huang
Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen
Colin M Ragush
Rob C Jamieson
Author Affiliation
Centre for Water Resources Studies, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.
Source
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Nov; 25(33):32881-32893
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Bacteria
Disinfection - methods
Environmental Biomarkers
Escherichia coli
Feces - microbiology
Humans
Listeria monocytogenes
Nunavut
Ponds - microbiology
Salmonella
Seasons
Waste Disposal, Fluid - methods
Waste Water - microbiology
Water Microbiology
Abstract
Wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) are commonly used to treat municipal wastewater in Arctic Canada. The biological treatment in the WSPs is strongly influenced by climatic conditions. Currently, there is limited information about the removal of fecal and pathogenic bacteria during the short cool summer treatment season. With relevance to public health, the objectives of this paper were to determine if treatment in arctic WSPs resulted in the disinfection (i.e., removal of fecal indicator bacteria, Escherichia coli) and removal of selected human bacterial pathogens from the treated effluent. The treatment performance, with focus on microbial removal, was assessed for the one-cell WSP in Pond Inlet (Nunavut [NU]) and two-cell WSP in Clyde River (NU) over three consecutive (2012-2014) summer treatment seasons (late June-early September). The WSPs provided a primary disinfection treatment of the wastewater with a 2-3 Log removal of generic indicator E. coli. The bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp., pathogenic E. coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, but not Campylobacter spp. and Helicobacter pylori, were detected in the untreated and treated wastewater, indicating that human pathogens were not reliably removed. Seasonal and annual variations in temperature significantly (p 
PubMed ID
28353112 View in PubMed
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Fin whales as bioindicators of multi-decadal change in carbon and oxygen stable isotope shifts in the North Atlantic.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296607
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2018 Jul; 138:129-134
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Date
Jul-2018
Author
A Borrell
L Saiz
G A Víkingsson
P Gaufier
A López Fernández
A Aguilar
Author Affiliation
Institute of Biodiversity Research (IRBio), Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: xonborrell@ub.edu.
Source
Mar Environ Res. 2018 Jul; 138:129-134
Date
Jul-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Review
Keywords
Animals
Atlantic Ocean
Carbon
Carbon Isotopes - metabolism
Environmental Biomarkers
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fin Whale - physiology
Iceland
Nitrogen Isotopes
Oxygen
Spain
Water Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Global changes, and particularly the massive release of CO2 to the atmosphere and subsequent global warming, have altered the baselines of carbon and oxygen stable isotopic ratios. Temporal shifts in these baselines can be advantageously monitored through cetacean skin samples because these animals are highly mobile and therefore integrate in their tissues the heterogeneity of local environmental signals. In this study, we examine variation of d13C and d18O values in the skin of fin whales sampled over three decades in two different North Atlantic feeding grounds: west Iceland and northwest Spain. These locations are situated about 2700?km apart and thus represent a wide latitudinal range within the North Atlantic Ocean. The d13C decrease in both areas is attributed to the burning of fossil fuels and increased deforestation worldwide, the so-called Suess effect. The dissimilarity in the magnitude of the shift between the two areas is coincidental with previous information on local shifts and lies within the ranges of variation observed. d18O values experienced a minimal, yet significant change in fin whales from W Iceland (a decline of -0.44‰ between 1986 and 2013) but not in those from NW Spain. This is in concordance with a higher rise in temperatures in the former area than in the latter. The study validates the use of cetacean skin to monitor temporal and geographical shifts in stable isotopic values and alerts that, when applying this tool to ecological research, comparisons between sample sets should take into account temporal and latitudinal scales.
PubMed ID
29724493 View in PubMed
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Nitrogen and sulfur isotopes predict variation in mercury levels in Arctic seabird prey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296070
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:907-914
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Esteban Góngora
Birgit M Braune
Kyle H Elliott
Author Affiliation
Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue H9X 3V9, Canada. Electronic address: esteban.gongora@mail.mcgill.ca.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:907-914
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Birds
Carbon Isotopes - analysis
Ecosystem
Ecotoxicology - methods
Environmental Biomarkers
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Fishes
Food chain
Invertebrates - chemistry
Mercury - analysis
Nitrogen Isotopes - analysis
Predatory Behavior
Sulfur Isotopes - analysis
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Abstract
Mercury (Hg) biotransformation and biomagnification are processes that affect Hg burdens in wildlife. To interpret variation in Hg in seabird eggs, used as Hg bioindicators in the Arctic, it is important to understand how Hg biomagnifies through the food web. We evaluated the use of d34S, along with other commonly used stable isotope signatures (d15N and d13C), for the determination of possible sources of Hg in an Arctic food web (56 individuals of 15 species of fish and invertebrates). Hg correlated with d34S (R2?=?0.72). When the combined effects of d34S and d15N were considered in mixed-effects models, both d34S and d15N together described Hg patterns in Arctic food webs better than either isotope alone. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of d34S to account for variation in Hg among marine animals and to study the possible underlying effects that MeHg production may have on Hg pathways in Arctic ecosystems.
PubMed ID
30301115 View in PubMed
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