Cognitive and receptive language development were examined in 135 60-month-old and 137 72-month-old children for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol had been ascertained. Discriminant Function analysis revealed an association between prenatal cigarette exposure and lower cognitive and receptive language scores at 60 and 72 months. This paralleled and extended observations made with this sample at annual assessments at 12 to 48 months of age. Unlike observations made at 48 months, prenatal exposure to marijuana was not associated with the cognitive and verbal outcomes. Relatively low levels of maternal alcohol consumption did not have significant relationships with the outcome variables. The importance of assessing subtle components rather than global cognitive and language skills to detect potential behavioral teratogenic effects of the drugs being examined is discussed.
Comment In: J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1992 Dec;13(6):425-81469111
Child abuse and neglect is of growing concern in many American Indian and Alaska Native communities. The present paper represents one attempt to add to the existing, albeit sparse, knowledge base concerning the abuse and neglect of American Indian children. It reports the results of a survey of federal human service providers in which the subject of child abuse and neglect in Indian communities figured prominently. The study took place at several locations in Arizona and New Mexico. Data were obtained using the key-informant method from 55 federal service providers who identified 1,155 children, from birth to 21 years for inclusion in the survey. Children were included if they were currently in mental health treatment, if they were in need of mental health treatment, or if they were known to have been abused or neglected. Particular emphasis was given in the data collection to abuse- and neglect-related factors such as living arrangements, familial disruption, psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, and school adjustment. The patterns evident in this sample closely resemble those trends identified among abused and/or neglected children in the general population. Sixty-seven percent of the sample was described as neglected or abused. The presence of abuse and/or neglect was strongly related to severe levels of chaos in the family. Children who were described as both abused and neglected had more psychiatric symptoms, greater frequency of having run away or been expelled, and greater frequency of drug use.
To assess the acceptability and face validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in Aboriginal community controlled health services (ACCHOs) located in the greater Sydney region.
A qualitative study was conducted in three ACCHOs located within the greater Sydney region in 2008-2009. A semi-structured approach was used in focus groups and small group interviews (n = 47) to elicit participants' views on the appropriateness of the SDQ and any additional issues of importance to Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health.
The SDQ was found to cover many important aspects of Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health, however, the wording of some questions was considered ambiguous and some critical issues are not explored. The peer relationships subscale did not appear to fit well with Aboriginal concepts of the relative importance of different interpersonal relationships.
Overall the SDQ was acceptable in ACCHOs in Sydney; however, changes to the wording of some questions and the response scale may be indicated to improve cultural appropriateness and clarity. A further set of issues which are not covered by any commonly used screening tools but are of critical importance to Aboriginal child and adolescent mental health should also be considered by clinicians.
The results from achievement and mental ability testing in grades 3, 5, and 6 (ages 10, 12 and 13) of about 150 Swedish urban schoolchildren (boys and girls) were analysed according to the children's physical maturity (defined by late and early peak height velocity ages) and social background (defined by father's occupation). Social background played the main role in performance on both the achievement and most of the mental ability tests. Early maturers were, in general, superior to late maturers on the mental ability tests in grade 5. On verbally loaded tests and interaction between physical maturity and social background was found--early maturers scored higher than late maturers in the "lowest" social group, while a slight trend or no difference between early and late maturers was noticed for the 'upper' social groups.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the sociomedical risk factors associated with episodes of acute otitis media (AOM), recurrent AOM (rAOM), and chronic otitis media (COM) in Greenlandic children and especially to point out children at high risk of rAOM (defined as > 5 AOM episodes since birth) and COM which are prevalent among Inuit children all over the Arctic. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional and included 740 unselected children, 3, 4, 5, and 8-years-old, living in two major Greenlandic towns, Nuuk and Sisimiut. All children were otologically examined and the parents answered a questionnaire containing sociomedical variables including ethnicity, family history of OM, housing, insulation, crowding, daycare, passive cigarette smoking, breast feeding, type of diet, allergy, and chronic diseases. Historical data were cross-checked in medical records which also formed the basis for the drop-out analyses. Statistical analyses included frequency tests, calculation of odds ratio (OR), and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The attendance rate was 86%. Former episode of AOM was reported by 2/3 of the children, rAOM by 20%, and COM by 9%. The following variables were found significantly more often in children with AOM by simple frequency testing: Parental (OR = 1.83), sibling (OR = 1.62), and parental plus sibling (OR = 2.56) history of OM, crowding (OR = 5.55), long period of exclusive breast feeding ( > 4 months) (OR = 2.47), and recent acute disease (P = 0.034). The following variables were found significantly more often in children with rAOM or COM by simple frequency testing: Parental history of OM (OR = 1.60; OR = 2.11, respectively) and no recall of breast feeding (P = 0.005; P = 0.003, respectively). Also, COM was found significantly more often in children with two Greenlandic parents (OR = 3.07). A multiple logistic regression test denoted only parental history of OM (OR = 1.82) and long period of exclusive breast feeding (OR = 1.14) as significant predictors of AOM. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the risk factors usually associated with AOM could not be confirmed as risk factors in this survey. Parental history of OM and long period of exclusive breast feeding were the strongest factors associated with AOM in Greenlandic children and ethnicity was associated with COM. However, the study confirms that AOM is a multifactorial disease determined by a number of genetic and environmental factors.
We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.