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Activity of macrolides, lincosamines, streptogramins and fluoroquinolones against streptococcus pneumoniae and enterococci isolates from the western hemisphere: example of international surveillance (SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program )in the development of new drugs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198751
Source
Braz J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb;4(1):15-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2000
Author
M T Lewis
R N Jones
Author Affiliation
Medical Microbiology Division, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
Source
Braz J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb;4(1):15-21
Date
Feb-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amino Sugars - pharmacology
Anti-Bacterial Agents - chemistry - pharmacology
Anti-Infective Agents - pharmacology
Canada
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Enterococcus - drug effects
Fluoroquinolones
Humans
Latin America
Macrolides
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Sentinel Surveillance
Streptococcus pneumoniae - drug effects
United States
Virginiamycin - pharmacology
Abstract
Resistance among commonly isolated Gram-positive cocci have compromised the available therapeutic regimens and require structured monitoring at the local, regional, national, and international levels. Two popular treatment classes of antimicrobials (macrolides-lincosamines-streptogramins [MLS], fluoroquinolones) have been tested against 3, 049 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and enterococci from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance program. The strains were obtained from clinical cases in hospitals in the United States, Canada, and six nations (10 medical centers )in Latin America. MLS and fluoroquinolone compounds had moderate activity against vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis only (gatifloxacin, and trovafloxacin MIC(50), 0.5 microg/ml), and quinupristin/dalfopristin was potent only against E.faecium isolates (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml(-2) microg/ml). When tested against pneumococci, gatifloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin (MIC(90), or =99.8% and 84.7% to 99.1% of strains, respectively. These results from a global resistance monitoring program should encourage rapid drug development. Based on in vitro sensitivity testing, they indicate a promising role for the treatment of emerging resistant Gram-positive cocci. The clinical role for each new agent will depend on safety profiles, rates of administration, and other issues identified during development in the clinical trials process.
PubMed ID
10788841 View in PubMed
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Alarming spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci in Sweden since 2007.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141857
Source
Euro Surveill. 2010;15(29)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2010
Author
T. Soderblom
O. Aspevall
M. Erntell
G. Hedin
D. Heimer
I. Hokeberg
K. Kidd-Ljunggren
A. Melhus
B. Olsson-Liljequist
I. Sjogren
J. Smedjegard
J. Struwe
S. Sylvan
K. Tegmark-Wisell
M. Thore
Author Affiliation
Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
Source
Euro Surveill. 2010;15(29)
Date
2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Enterococcus - drug effects
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Humans
Population Surveillance
Sweden - epidemiology
Vancomycin - pharmacology - therapeutic use
Abstract
The total number of persons infected or colonised with vancomycin-resistant enterococci mandatorily reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control increased dramatically during 2007 and 2008. During a period of twenty months from 1 July 2007 to 28 February 2009, a total of 760 cases were reported compared with 194 cases reported during the entire period from 2000 to 2006. This rise was mainly attributed to a wide dissemination of vancomycin resistant enterococci which started in a number of hospitals in Stockholm in the autumn of 2007 and was followed by dissemination in various healthcare facilities (hospitals and homes for the elderly) in a further two Swedish counties in 2008. The majority of the cases (97%) were acquired in Sweden and among these, healthcare-acquired E. faecium vanB dominated (n=634). The majority of these isolates had identical or closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns indicating clonal dissemination in the affected counties. The median minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin was 32 mg/L (ranging from 4 to >128 mg/L) and of teichoplanin 0.12 mg/L (ranging from 0.06 to 0.25 mg/L). Particular emphasis was placed on countermeasures such as screening, contact tracing, cleaning procedures, education in accurate use of infection control practices as well as increasing awareness of hygiene among patients and visitors. With these measures the dissemination rate decreased substantially, but new infections with the E. faecium vanB strain were still detected.
PubMed ID
20667301 View in PubMed
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[Aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci a new bacterial hazard].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature202302
Source
Lakartidningen. 1999 Apr 7;96(14):1694-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-7-1999
Author
A. Melhus
Author Affiliation
Kliniskt mikrobiologiska laboratoriet, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmö. asa.melhus@mikrobiol.mas.lu.se
Source
Lakartidningen. 1999 Apr 7;96(14):1694-5
Date
Apr-7-1999
Language
Swedish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aminoglycosides
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage
Cross Infection - drug therapy - microbiology - prevention & control
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Drug Resistance, Multiple
Enterococcus - drug effects - genetics - pathogenicity
Enterococcus faecalis - drug effects - genetics - pathogenicity
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - drug therapy - prevention & control - transmission
Humans
Infection Control
Prevalence
Sweden - epidemiology
Virulence
Abstract
Enterococci are common causative agents in a broad range of human infections. Although formerly considered to be of low virulence, in recent years they have emerged as important pathogens, particularly in the hospital environment. Enterococci are not only intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics, but are also characterised by a potent and unique ability to exchange genetic material. With the increasing prevalence of strains resistant to ampicillin, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides, serious therapeutic difficulties have become more common. Epidemiological aspects, the mechanisms of action, the detection of antibiotic resistance, and the situation of enterococci in Sweden are discussed in the article.
PubMed ID
10222683 View in PubMed
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Ammonia sanitization of blackwater for safe use as fertilizer.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268278
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;71(5):795-800
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Jörgen Fidjeland
Sven-Erik Svensson
Björn Vinnerås
Source
Water Sci Technol. 2015;71(5):795-800
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ammonia - chemistry
Animals
Ascaris
Calcium Compounds - chemistry
Disinfection - methods
Enterococcus
Enterococcus faecalis
Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli O157
Fertilizers
Oxides - chemistry
Salmonella
Salmonella typhimurium
Sweden
Temperature
Urea - chemistry
Waste Water - chemistry - microbiology - parasitology
Abstract
Source-separated blackwater from low-flush toilets contains plant-available nutrients and can be used as a fertilizer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact on pathogen inactivation when treating blackwater with urea and/or lime. Blackwater was spiked with Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecalis, and Ascaris suum eggs, and treated with urea and/or lime in concentrations up to 0.1% w/w. The bottles were kept in a storage facility (manure slurry tank) for 102 days while monitoring the pathogen concentrations. The treatment time needed to meet the requirement for Salmonella and E. coli reduction could be reduced at least six-fold. The enterococci were more persistent, and only the highest treatment doses had a significantly higher inactivation than the controls. The Ascaris egg viability was only reduced by around 50%, so higher urea/lime doses and/or longer treatment times are required to fulfill the treatment requirements of 3 log10 reductions of parasite eggs.
PubMed ID
25768229 View in PubMed
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Ampicillin-resistant enterococci in a Swedish university hospital: nosocomial spread and risk factors for infection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature195013
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(3):182-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
E. Torell
O. Cars
A. Hambraeus
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2001;33(3):182-7
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ampicillin Resistance
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Carrier State - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Case-Control Studies
Cross Infection - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Enterococcus - classification - drug effects - isolation & purification
Feces - microbiology
Female
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - transmission
Humans
Incidence
Infection Control
Longevity
Male
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Ampicillin-resistant enterococci (ARE) have recently emerged as clinical pathogens in Sweden. Between 1991 and 1995 the incidence of ARE among enterococcal isolates at Uppsala University Hospital increased from 0.5% to 8.1%. Shedding of ARE from infected cases and risk factors for infection with ARE were studied during a period of 7 months for 38 ARE cases and 38 controls with ampicillin-susceptible enterococci. ARE cases had longer mean duration of hospitalization than controls (29 d vs. 15 d; p = 0.002). In univariate analysis other risk factors for infection with ARE were found to be prior therapy with > 2 antimicrobials (odds ratio [OR] 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-9.5), > 4 weeks of antimicrobial therapy (OR 6.9; CI 1.8-28.3) and cephalosporin therapy (OR 9.1; CI 2.6-33.7). Fourteen of 26 skin carriers of ARE were found to be shedding ARE to the environment, compared to 2 of 12 non-skin carriers (p = 0.03). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested multifocal origin of the majority of the infecting ARE strains. Non-recognized fecal colonization and silent spread of ARE among many patients and over a prolonged time period is suggested to be the main explanation for the increase of ARE infections in our hospital. Infection control measures focusing on protecting patients at high risk for ARE infections and further efforts to optimize antimicrobial use are proposed.
PubMed ID
11303807 View in PubMed
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[Analysis of prophylactic and therapeutic effect of probiotic preparations from position of new scientific technologies].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature263348
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2015 Mar-Apr;(2):90-104
Publication Type
Article
Author
V M Bondarenko
O V Rybalchenko
Source
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2015 Mar-Apr;(2):90-104
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Atherosclerosis - microbiology - pathology - therapy
Bifidobacterium - physiology
Computational Biology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - microbiology - pathology - therapy
Dysbiosis - microbiology - pathology - therapy
Enterococcus - physiology
Humans
Lactobacillus - physiology
Microbiota - physiology
Obesity - microbiology - pathology - therapy
Probiotics - therapeutic use
Russia
Abstract
In this review new scientific technologies (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, transcrip- tomics) were used to evaluate the prophylactic and therapeutic action of probiotics, which are a major component ofthe normal human microflora (microbiota). Modern terms, definitions, classification of probiotic preparations are provided in the paper, the list of the probiotics registered in the Russian Federation is also submitted. The review analyzes the majority of mechanisms of probiotics action on a human body. The problem of safe application of probiotics is considered along with the detailed characteristic of the most effective production probiotic strains. New scientific technology to assess the effects of probiotic bacteria on the various functions of the macroorganism are also examined. In the review the special attention is paid to discussion of effectiveness of the probiotics impact in chronic infectious and metabolic disease processes (atherosclerosis, lipid distress syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obesity, etc.), which are the most active during dysbacteriosis and the destruction of normal microflora. From data of this article clearly that new scientific technologies will allow us to establish the functions of proteins that regulate metabolic and signaling pathways and affect the expression of genes required for the adaptation of probiotic strains in contact with the human body. In this review it is shown that the successful solution of this problem is closely connected with application of new scientific technologies for studying the composition and functions of the human microbiota, methods of active influence on her, and also with development of more sophisticated and effective probiotic preparations.
PubMed ID
26016351 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a hematology-oncology unit: control by patient cohorting and terminal cleaning of the environment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188914
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(8):468-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Mary Lu Sample
Denise Gravel
Cathy Oxley
Baldwin Toye
Gary Garber
Karam Ramotar
Author Affiliation
Infection Control, The Ottawa Hospital, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2002 Aug;23(8):468-70
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Cross Infection - epidemiology - prevention & control
Disease Outbreaks - prevention & control
Disinfection - methods
Enterococcus
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Humans
Infection Control - methods
Male
Oncology Service, Hospital
Ontario - epidemiology
Patient Isolation
Vancomycin Resistance
Abstract
We describe the impact of enhanced infection control interventions on controlling the spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in our hematology-oncology unit. Between April and September 1998, 13 patients on this unit were identified as having VRE. In addition to contact precautions, other measures that were needed to control the outbreak included closure of the unit to new admissions, creation of a cohort of VRE-positive patients and staff, and thorough cleaning of patients' rooms with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite.
PubMed ID
12186215 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial activity of tigecycline and comparative agents against clinical isolates of staphylococci and enterococci from ICUs and general hospital wards at three Swedish university hospitals.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152942
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41(3):171-81
Publication Type
Article
Date
2009
Author
Carina Claesson
Lennart E Nilsson
Göran Kronvall
Mats Walder
Mikael Sörberg
Author Affiliation
Clinical Microbiology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden. carcl@imk.liu.se
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41(3):171-81
Date
2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Bacterial Proteins - genetics
Carbon-Oxygen Ligases - genetics
Enterococcus - drug effects - genetics - isolation & purification
Hospitals, University
Humans
Intensive Care Units
Methicillin Resistance - genetics
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Minocycline - analogs & derivatives - pharmacology
Patients' Rooms
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Staphylococcus - drug effects - genetics - isolation & purification
Statistics, nonparametric
Sweden
Vancomycin Resistance - genetics
Abstract
The activities of tigecycline and comparative agents on staphylococci and enterococci isolated from patients at general hospital wards (GHWs) and intensive care units (ICUs) at 3 university hospitals in Sweden were investigated. Oxacillin disc diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration with E-test were used. The presence of mecA, vanA or vanB genes was determined with PCR. Statistically significant higher incidence of clindamycin, fusidic acid, rifampicin and multidrug-resistant CoNS was found at ICUs compared to GHWs. Resistance rates were low among S. aureus. Tigecycline, linezolid and vancomycin were the only agents with high activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant CoNS. Resistance rates were low among E. faecalis, except for high-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) E. faecalis. E. faecium showed high resistance rates to ampicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam and imipenem. The HLGR rates among E. faecium were lower than the rates for E. faecalis. Tigecycline and linezolid were the only drugs with high activity against all enterococci including vancomycin-resistant enterococci. No statistically significant differences in susceptibility rates were found between the ward levels for S. aureus and enterococcal isolates and no statistically significant differences were found between the hospitals.
PubMed ID
19173129 View in PubMed
Less detail
Source
CMAJ. 2002 Oct 15;167(8):885-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2002
Author
John Conly
Author Affiliation
Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, University of Calgary, Alta. jconly@ucalgary.ca
Source
CMAJ. 2002 Oct 15;167(8):885-91
Date
Oct-15-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anti-Bacterial Agents - therapeutic use
Canada - epidemiology
Cross Infection - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Drug Resistance, Microbial - genetics
Drug Utilization
Enterococcus - drug effects
Humans
Methicillin Resistance
Prevalence
Staphylococcus aureus - drug effects
Streptococcus pneumoniae - drug effects
Vancomycin Resistance
Abstract
Antibiotic resistance has increased rapidly during the last decade, creating a serious threat to the treatment of infectious diseases. Canada is no exception to this worldwide phenomenon. Data from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program have revealed that the incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as a proportion of S. aureus isolates, increased from 1% in 1995 to 8% by the end of 2000, and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus has been documented in all 10 provinces since the first reported outbreak in 1995. The prevalence of nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada in 2000 was found to be 12%. Human antimicrobial prescriptions, adjusted for differences in the population, declined 11% based on the total number of prescriptions dispensed between 1995 and 2000. There was also a 21% decrease in beta-lactam prescriptions during this same period. These data suggest that systematic efforts to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antimicrobials to outpatients in Canada, beginning after a national consensus conference in 1997, may be having an impact. There is, however, still a need for continued concerted efforts on a national, provincial and regional level to quell the rising tide of antibiotic resistance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
12406948 View in PubMed
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Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular analysis of Enterococcus faecalis originating from endodontic infections in Finland and Lithuania.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169666
Source
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2006 Jun;21(3):164-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2006
Author
A H Reynaud Af Geijersstam
M J Ellington
M. Warner
N. Woodford
M. Haapasalo
Author Affiliation
Department of Endodontics, Institute of Clinical Odontology, Oslo, Norway. annehr@odont.uio.no
Source
Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2006 Jun;21(3):164-8
Date
Jun-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters - genetics
Anti-Bacterial Agents - pharmacology
Base Sequence
DNA Mutational Analysis
Dental Pulp Cavity - microbiology
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial - genetics
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Enterococcus faecalis - drug effects - genetics
Finland - epidemiology
Genes, Bacterial
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections - epidemiology - microbiology
Humans
Latvia - epidemiology
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Molecular Epidemiology
Molecular Sequence Data
Periapical Periodontitis - epidemiology - microbiology
Virginiamycin - analogs & derivatives - pharmacology
Abstract
Enterococcus faecalis strains with multiple antibiotic resistances can cause infections that are difficult to treat. The microbial flora in treatment-resistant apical periodontitis is dominated by E. faecalis, and is a potential source of infections at other sites.
Sensitivities to a range of antibiotics were determined for 59 endodontic E. faecalis isolates from Finland and Lithuania. The DNA sequence of the gene responsible for the species' intrinsic quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance, lsa, was determined from two isolates with diminished resistance. Four pairs of isolates from the same root canal were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
A high prevalence of resistance to rifampicin was found, whereas all isolates were susceptible or showed intermediate susceptibility to penicillin and ampicillin and four isolates were unusually susceptible to cefotaxime. No vancomycin or high-level gentamicin resistance was detected. Nine of 59 isolates were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A fully quinupristin-dalfopristin-susceptible isolate also susceptible to clindamycin produced a truncated Lsa polypeptide, and an isolate with borderline quinupristin-dalfopristin-susceptibility had mutations proximal to the predicted ribosomal binding site. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the same root canal could harbor two different strains of E. faecalis during the course of the same infection.
Despite the differing antibiotic usage in Finland and Lithuania, E. faecalis from endodontic infections in these countries showed similar susceptibility patterns with levels of resistance considered typical for the species, and decreased resistance to clindamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin as well as lesions in the lsa gene which were similar to those described in other clinical isolates.
PubMed ID
16626373 View in PubMed
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154 records – page 1 of 16.