Formation of microflora in the large intestine of 5-day old infants was studied in one of the Moscow maternity homes. The up-to-date procedures for isolation and identification of aerobic and anaerobic organisms were used in the study and the findings were processed on a computer. In the newborns of the maternity home of the "mother-infant" type there was observed colonization of the large intestine with aerobic and anaerobic organisms. A wave-like dynamics in the formation of the symbiotic microflora was revealed. It reflected the phenomenon of the microbial succession in the infants. The attempts to detect microbial interference between the species colonizing the large intestine showed that it was extremely rare in the 5-day old infants. This was likely the reason of the low intestine resistance to the colonization in the newborns which in its turn defined the frequent colonization of the intestine mucosa with S. aureus and the organisms of the Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Citrobacter group.
An incubation experiment was conducted to monitor effect of sewage sludge application on changes in numbers of faecal coliforms in soils over time after sludge application and evaluate the hygiene risks. Soil faecal coliform counts were made after 1, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 84 days of incubation. The faecal coliform counts in the sludge-treated soils decreased substantially with time and were similar to those in the untreated controls after incubation for 56 days. Land application of air-dried sludges increased the hygiene risks due to the re-growth of faecal coliforms, and the counts of faecal coliforms in soil treated with air dried sludge from Suzhou (91% DM) were 50 times higher than in soils with fresh dewatered sludge from Suzhou (15% DM) after 7 days of incubation. The main factors affecting the changes in faecal coliform counts were sludge type and incubation time. Sludge type determined the faecal coliform counts and the ability of the faecal coliforms to re-establish, and indigenous microorganisms competed with the faecal coliforms for nutrients during the incubation process.