Duck virus enteritis occurred in the spring of 1982 among domesticated mallards, Pekin ducks and geese producing eggs for the same hatchery. Wild mallards may have introduced the infection to the domestic birds. High mortality occurred in one flock of Pekin ducks and in young geese. Mallards were also affected, but less severely. Gross and microscopic lesions were in general typical for DVE. Virus was demonstrated by electron microscopy of Bursa fabricii from experimentally infected ducklings. Neutralizing antibodies were found in serum from ducks, surviving an acute outbreak in the flock. Vaccination was performed and hygienic precautions taken, and transmission from infected flocks to progeny was negligible.
We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water source, rural/urban environment and socioeconomic status (SES) according to the location of their residence using geographical information systems analysis methods. The odds of campylobacteriosis compared to enteric disease controls were higher for individuals serviced by private wells than municipal surface water systems (odds ratio 1·4, 95% confidence interval 1·1-1·8). In rural settings, the odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in November (P = 0·014). The odds of campylobacteriosis were higher in individuals aged ?15 years, especially in those with higher SES. In this region of BC, campylobacteriosis risk, compared to other enteric diseases, seems to be mediated by vulnerable drinking water sources and rural factors. Consideration should be given to further support well-water users and to further study the microbiological impact of agriculture on water.