The prevalence of obesity is increasing in an alarming way, while that of other risk factors (hyperlipaemia, arterial hypertension.) are tending to diminish. Amongst all of the factors involved in its development, two are outstanding because of their potential for modification: an excessive calorie intake and a sedentary life style, in spite of the recommendations in favour of regularly practising physical exercise. The principal problem in studying the prevalence of obesity is the scarcity of studies that analyse it in a global form. In 1989 the first results of the MONICA project of the WHO were published, with the observation that the prevalence was higher for men than for women, and that it was greater in the Mediterranean countries and the east of Europe, in comparison with the north and centre-west. In 1997 a study was carried out by the Institute of European Food Studies (IEFS) in which 15,239 individuals participated proceeding from representative samples of the 15 Member States of the European Union. Its results showed that the higher prevalence of obesity was to be found in the United Kingdom (12%), followed by Spain (11%), while it was lower in Italy, France and Sweden (7%). By sex, the prevalence of obesity is somewhat greater amongst women, while overweightedness was greater amongst men. In Spain the distribution of overweightedness and obesity amongst the different socio-economic groups is similar to that of other regions, with the percentage of obesity being highest amongst the elderly, subjects of a lower socio-economic level and the inhabitants of the north and north-west of Spain.
Against the background of Norwegian conditions, the authors outline the equipment needed to launch a teleradiology unit, and what the clinician using the unit might expect of such an imaging facility. They also discuss whether the unit should be organised with the needs of emergency care in mind or as an integrated part of everyday routine at the radiology department, how financing and judicial issues have been managed so far, and whether the introduction of teleradiology might effect relationships between health care personnel and patients.
Modern telecommunication technology enables medical information and images to be transmitted from the general practitioner to a hospital or between hospitals. This allows the specialist to interactively conduct and control the examination carried out by the GP via the two way sound and picture connection within radiology, pathology, dermatology, psychiatry, cardiology and otorhinolaryngology. The diagnostic quality of the technique is equal to that of an ordinary examination. The method gives the patients access to adequate medical expertise in their home environment, is highly effective and saves cost of transport. The patients are satisfied with being able to meet the experts this way.
Results of investigations for more profound studying of different parameters of the cryogenic influence on neural fibers are adduced. According to the histological investigations the nerves cryodestruction at -50 degrees C temperature and lower caused the changes appearance with a gradual deepening of destructive changes under the influence of the more lower temperature.
Method of complex treatment of the diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), which included combined application of intravascular laser irradiation of blood, ultraviolet irradiation of blood, indirect electrochemical detoxication of organism, endolymphatic therapy, abacterial environment, modern methods of physical antisepsis was elaborated and introduced in practice.
While the consequences of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases and volatile agents on morbidity in operating room staff are controversial (survey in Swiss investigations show a distinct correlation with subjective complaints, e.g. tiredness and headache on the day of exposure (Table 1). In Sweden, rigorous control of occupational exposure to anesthetic gases has prompted development of various scavenging systems, among which the double mask (Fig. 1) is the latest and most advanced. During mask anesthesia, escaping anesthetic gases are evacuated at the point of leakage via a thin slot between a flexible silicone inner mask and a rigid plastic outer mask. A small plate in the mask produces turbulence in the otherwise laminar flow of anesthetic gases, thus reducing the speed of gas leakage. A silicone chamber is mounted on the mask and connected to a fan, requiring a flow of 35 m3/h for optimal function. This chamber does, however, also associate the system with two practical problems: the system with its evacuation tube is heavier to hold than conventional masks, and it is associated with increased dead-space that is only partly minimized by a modification of the Y-connector. While the handling is largely a matter of routine and the weight of the system is minimized when the evacuation tube is arranged to draw slightly upward, the increased dead space may reduce the practicality of the double mask in infants.
The main goal of the Norwegian policy on food and nutrition for the period 1975-1990 is to reduce the proportion of fat in the diet to 35 per cent of the energy supply. This should be achieved through a gradual change in diet. Figures on food supply and consumption show that this target has been reached. The dietary changes have probably contributed considerably to the decrease in cardiovascular disease since the early 1970s. It is most likely that public health can still gain much from further changes in the Norwegian diet.