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167 records – page 1 of 17.

A 26 year physiological description of a National Hockey League team.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature156070
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Aug;33(4):753-60
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2008
Author
H A Quinney
Randy Dewart
Alex Game
Gary Snydmiller
Darren Warburton
Gordon Bell
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Source
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Aug;33(4):753-60
Date
Aug-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry - methods
Body Height - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weights and Measures - methods - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Hand Strength - physiology
Hockey - physiology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Endurance - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Skinfold thickness
Time
Young Adult
Abstract
The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the physiological profile of a National Hockey League (NHL) team over a period of 26 years. All measurements were made at a similar time of year (pre-season) in 703 male (mean age +/- SD = 24 +/- 4 y) hockey players. The data were analyzed across years, between positions (defensemen, forwards, and goaltenders), and between what were deemed successful and non-successful years using a combination of points acquired during the season and play-off success. Most anthropometric (height, mass, and BMI) and physiological parameters (absolute and relative VO2 peak, relative peak 5 s power output, abdominal endurance, and combined grip strength) showed a gradual increase over the 26 year period. Defensemen were taller and heavier, had higher absolute VO2 peak, and had greater combined grip strength than forwards and goaltenders. Forwards were younger and had higher values for relative VO2 peak. Goaltenders were shorter, had less body mass, a higher sum of skinfolds, lower VO2 peak, and better flexibility. The overall pre-season fitness profile was not related to team success. In conclusion, this study revealed that the fitness profile for a professional NHL ice-hockey team exhibited increases in player size and anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters over a 26 year period that differed by position. However, this evolution of physiological profile did not necessarily translate into team success in this particular NHL franchise.
PubMed ID
18641719 View in PubMed
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31P-NMR study of skeletal muscle metabolism in patients with chronic respiratory impairment.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5321
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Oct;146(4):1019-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1992
Author
T. Kutsuzawa
S. Shioya
D. Kurita
M. Haida
Y. Ohta
H. Yamabayashi
Author Affiliation
Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan.
Source
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1992 Oct;146(4):1019-24
Date
Oct-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Anaerobic Threshold - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Forearm
Glycolysis - physiology
Humans
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Lung Diseases, Obstructive - metabolism
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy - diagnostic use
Male
Middle Aged
Muscles - metabolism
Phosphates - metabolism
Phosphocreatine - metabolism
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
To evaluate the energy metabolism of peripheral skeletal muscle during exercise in patients with chronic respiratory impairment, the 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of forearm muscle were investigated in nine patients and nine age-matched control subjects. We calculated the phosphocreatine (PCr) to PCr + inorganic phosphate (PI) ratio, the time constant of PCr recovery and the intracellular pH. The exercise consisted of repetitive hand grips against a 2-kg load every 3 s for 6 min (0.33 W). The patients showed a marked decrease in the PCr/(PCr + PI) ratio and pH in the muscle during exercise in contrast to the control subjects whose PCr/(PCr + PI) showed a minor decrease without any change in pH. The relationship between PCr utilization and pH demonstrated that anaerobic glycolysis switched on earlier in patients with chronic respiratory impairment. A split PI peak was observed in five of nine patients during exercise. The PCr/(PCr + PI) ratio during the last minute of exercise correlated significantly with the vital capacity (% predicted), with the FEV1/FVC, with the body weight, with the maximum strength of hand grip, and with the muscle mass. The results indicate impaired oxidative phosphorylation and the early activation of anaerobic glycolysis in the muscles of patients with chronic respiratory impairment. Several factors related to chronic respiratory impairment, such as disuse, malnutrition and dysoxia, would contribute to the metabolic changes observed in the muscles examined.
PubMed ID
1416390 View in PubMed
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The Actiheart in adolescents: a doubly labelled water validation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118532
Source
Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012 Nov;24(4):589-602
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2012
Author
Nerissa Campbell
Harry Prapavessis
Casey Gray
Erin McGowan
Elaine Rush
Ralph Maddison
Author Affiliation
School of Kinesiology, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012 Nov;24(4):589-602
Date
Nov-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anthropometry
Body Composition
Body mass index
Child
Cohort Studies
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise Test - instrumentation - methods
Female
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Linear Models
Male
Monitoring, Physiologic - instrumentation
Motor Activity - physiology
Ontario
Water - diagnostic use
Abstract
This study investigated the validity of the Actiheart device for estimating free-living physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in adolescents.
Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in eighteen Canadian adolescents, aged 15-18 years, by DLW. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as 0.9 X TEE minus resting energy expenditure, assuming 10% for the thermic effect of feeding. Participants wore the chest mounted Actiheart device which records simultaneously minute-by-minute acceleration (ACC) and heart rate (HR). Using both children and adult branched equation modeling, derived from laboratory-based activity, PAEE was estimated from the ACC and HR data. Linear regression analyses examined the association between PAEE derived from the Actiheart and DLW method where DLW PAEE served as the dependent variable. Measurement of agreement between the two methods was analyzed using the Bland-Altman procedure.
A nonsignificant association was found between the children derived Actiheart and DLW PAEE values (R = .23, R(2) = .05, p = .36); whereas a significant association was found between the adult derived Actiheart and DLW PAEE values (R = .53, R(2) = .29, p
PubMed ID
23196766 View in PubMed
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Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95795
Source
Am J Primatol. 2005 May;66(1):23-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
Vasey Natalie
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon 97207-0751, USA. nvasey@pdx.edu
Source
Am J Primatol. 2005 May;66(1):23-44
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activity Cycles - physiology
Animals
Ecosystem
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Feeding Behavior - physiology
Lemuridae - physiology
Madagascar
Motor Activity - physiology
Observation
Reproduction - physiology
Seasons
Sex Factors
Abstract
The activity budgets and daily activity rhythms of Varecia rubra were examined over an annual cycle according to season and reproductive stage. Given the relatively high reproductive costs and patchy food resources of this species, I predicted that V. rubra would 1) travel less and feed more during seasonal resource scarcity in an attempt to maintain energy balance, and 2) show sex differences in activity budgets due to differing reproductive investment. Contrary to the first prediction, V. rubra does not increase feeding time during seasonal food scarcity; rather, females feed for a consistent amount of time in every season, whereas males feed most during the resource-rich, hot dry season. The results are consistent with other predictions: V. rubra travels less in the resource-scarce cold rainy season, and there are some pronounced sex differences, with females feeding more and resting less than males in every season and in every reproductive stage except gestation. However, there are also some provocative similarities between the sexes when activity budgets are examined by reproductive stage. During gestation, female and male activity budgets do not differ and appear geared toward energy accumulation: both sexes feed and rest extensively and travel least during this stage. During lactation, activity budgets are geared toward high energy expenditure: both sexes travel most and in equal measure, and rest least, although it remains the case that females feed more and rest less than males. These similarities between female and male activity budgets appear related to cooperative infant care. The high energetic costs of reproduction in V. rubra females may require that they allot more time to feeding year round, and that their overall activity budget be more directly responsive to seasonal climate change, seasonal food distribution, and reproductive schedules.
Notes
Erratum In: Am J Primatol. 2005 Aug;66(4):393-4
PubMed ID
15898071 View in PubMed
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Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature63107
Source
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):296-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2006
Author
Marie Lof
Elisabet Forsum
Author Affiliation
Division of Nutrition, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University of Linkoping, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.
Source
Br J Nutr. 2006 Feb;95(2):296-302
Date
Feb-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Composition - physiology
Body mass index
Body Weight - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exertion - physiology
Female
Heart Rate - physiology
Humans
Pregnancy - physiology
Pregnancy Trimester, First
Pregnancy Trimester, Third
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Running - physiology
Sleep - physiology
Sweden
Walking - physiology
Abstract
Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.
PubMed ID
16469145 View in PubMed
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Additive effects of the mutations in the beta3-adrenergic receptor and uncoupling protein-1 genes on weight loss and weight maintenance in Finnish women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature203645
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Dec;83(12):4246-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1998
Author
M. Fogelholm
R. Valve
K. Kukkonen-Harjula
A. Nenonen
V. Hakkarainen
M. Laakso
M. Uusitupa
Author Affiliation
The UKK Institute for Health Promotion and Research, Tampere, Finland. mikael.fogelholm@helsinki.fi
Source
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Dec;83(12):4246-50
Date
Dec-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Amino Acid Sequence
Base Sequence
Body Weight - physiology
Carrier Proteins - genetics
Energy intake
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Female
Finland
Humans
Ion Channels
Membrane Proteins - genetics
Mitochondrial Proteins
Mutation - genetics - physiology
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta - genetics
Weight Loss - physiology
Abstract
This study examined whether the Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) and the A-->G mutation in the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) genes have associations with weight loss and subsequent weight maintenance. Seventy-seven obese (body mass index range, 29-46 kg/m2), clinically healthy, premenopausal women were studied. A 12-wk weight reduction by very low calorie diet (VLCD) was followed by a 40-wk weight maintenance phase. The subjects were divided into four groups according to their beta3AR and UCP-1 genotype: no mutation (control; n=37), only Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3AR gene (n=12), only A-->G mutation in the UCP-1 gene (n=23), and both mutations (n=5). Subjects with both mutations had a lower weight reduction during VLCD than the controls [-10.5+/-0.6 (+/-SEM) vs. -14.0+/-0.5 kg; P=0.051, by ANOVA]. During the maintenance phase, weight in subjects with both mutations increased by 5.8+/-1.5 kg, but remained unchanged in the controls (-0.5+/-0.8 kg; P=0.041). The changes in weight in subjects with only one of the mutation were close to the results in the controls. Resting energy expenditure, adjusted for fat mass, fat-free mass, and maximal aerobic power, did not change differently between the groups throughout the study. The results suggest that a combination of the Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3AR and the A-->G mutation in the UCP-1 genes may be associated with faster weight gain after a VLCD.
PubMed ID
9851758 View in PubMed
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Adequacy of food rations in soldiers during an arctic exercise measured by doubly labeled water.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4898
Source
J Appl Physiol. 1993 Oct;75(4):1790-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1993
Author
P J Jones
I. Jacobs
A. Morris
M B Ducharme
Author Affiliation
Division of Human Nutrition, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Source
J Appl Physiol. 1993 Oct;75(4):1790-7
Date
Oct-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Body Composition - physiology
Body Water - physiology
Electric Impedance
Energy Intake - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Food
Humans
Nutritional Requirements
Nutritional Status - physiology
Oxygen Radioisotopes - diagnostic use
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
To investigate the adequacy of food rations to supply energy needs in cold-temperature environments, caloric expenditure and intake and body composition changes were measured in a group of infantrymen during a 10-day field exercise in the Canadian Arctic. Energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method (n = 10), and caloric intake was measured by complete food intake records (n = 20). Body composition was determined by isotope dilution (n = 10) and bioelectrical impedence analysis (n = 20) on days 0 and 10. Baseline isotopic enrichment shifts due to geographical relocation were also monitored (n = 5). Mean body weight decreased 0.63 +/- 0.83 (SD) kg over the study period (P
PubMed ID
8282633 View in PubMed
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Adiposity, education and weight loss effort are independently associated with energy reporting quality in the Ontario Food Survey.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature164471
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug;10(8):803-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Heather Ward
Valerie Tarasuk
Rena Mendelson
Author Affiliation
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 150 College St, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E2, Canada.
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2007 Aug;10(8):803-9
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adiposity
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Basal Metabolism
Body mass index
Educational Status
Energy Intake - physiology
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Multivariate Analysis
Obesity - epidemiology - psychology
Ontario - epidemiology
Self Disclosure
Weight Loss
Abstract
To examine the associations of adiposity, dietary restraint and other personal characteristics with energy reporting quality.
Secondary analysis of 230 women and 158 men from the 1997/98 Ontario Food Survey.
Energy reporting quality was estimated by ratios of energy intake (EI) to both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to examine energy reporting quality between two dietary recalls and in relation to body mass index (BMI) with adjustment for potential confounders. Energy reporting quality was explored across categories of age, BMI, income, education, dieting status and food insecurity through analysis of variance (ANOVA).
From the ANOVA, energy reporting quality was associated with BMI group, age category and weight loss for men and women, as well as with education among women (P 0.05). EI:BMR and EI:TEE on the first and second 24-hour recalls were positively related (P
PubMed ID
17381922 View in PubMed
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The adrenocortical response of tufted puffin chicks to nutritional deficits.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4742
Source
Horm Behav. 2005 May;47(5):606-19
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
Alexander S Kitaysky
Marc D Romano
John F Piatt
John C Wingfield
Motoshi Kikuchi
Author Affiliation
Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. ffask@uaf.edu
Source
Horm Behav. 2005 May;47(5):606-19
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adrenal Cortex - physiology
Analysis of Variance
Animal Nutrition
Animals
Body Weight
Charadriiformes - physiology
Comparative Study
Corticosterone - blood
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Food Deprivation - physiology
Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System - physiology
Nesting Behavior - physiology
Pituitary-Adrenal System - physiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Stress - metabolism
Thyroid Hormones - blood
Abstract
In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer their young from temporary food shortages, increased cort secretion could be detrimental to undernourished chicks. In a system where parents are insensitive to chick demands, low benefits and high costs of activation of the HPA-axis in hungry chicks should lead to a disassociation of the nutritional state of the young and the activity of its HPA-axis. We tested this novel hypothesis for the tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata), a seabird with intermittent provisioning of a nest-bound semi-precocial chick. We examined the HPA-axis activity of captive chicks exposed to the following: (1) a short-term (24 h) food deprivation; and (2) an array of prolonged (3 weeks) restrictions in feeding regimens. We found that in response to a short-term food deprivation chicks decreased baseline levels of cort and thyroid hormones. In response to prolonged restrictions, food-limited chicks exhibited signs of nutritional deficit: they had lower body mass, endogenous lipid reserves, and thyroid hormone titers compared to chicks fed ad libitum. However, baseline and maximum acute stress-induced levels of cort were also lower in food-restricted chicks compared to those of chicks fed ad libitum. These results support a major prediction of the study hypothesis that puffin chicks suppress HPA-axis activity in response to short- and long-term nutritional deficits. This physiological adaptation may allow a chick to extend its development in the nest, while eluding detrimental effects of chronic cort elevation.
PubMed ID
15811363 View in PubMed
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Aerobic fitness, energy balance, and body mass index are associated with training load assessed by activity energy expenditure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154441
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Dec;19(6):871-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2009
Author
M. Tanskanen
A L T Uusitalo
K. Häkkinen
J. Nissilä
M. Santtila
K R Westerterp
H. Kyröläinen
Author Affiliation
Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. minna.tanskanen@sport.jyu.fi
Source
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Dec;19(6):871-8
Date
Dec-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anthropometry
Body mass index
Energy Metabolism - physiology
Exercise - physiology
Exercise Test
Finland
Humans
Male
Oxygen Consumption - physiology
Physical Fitness - physiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The present study examined whether activity energy expenditure related to body mass (AEE/kg) is associated with maximal aerobic fitness (VO(2max)), energy balance, and body mass index (BMI) during the 2 hardest weeks of the military basic training season (BT). An additional purpose was to study the accuracy of the pre-filled food diary energy intake. Energy expenditure (EE) with doubly labeled water, energy intake (EI), energy balance, and mis-recording was measured from 24 male conscripts with varying VO(2max). AEE/kg was calculated as (EE x 0.9-measured basal metabolic rate)/body mass. The reported EI was lower (P
PubMed ID
18980607 View in PubMed
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167 records – page 1 of 17.