To understand more specifically how the quality, quantity and frequency of snack food consumption differs in different BMI categories.
Four hundred and forty-nine school-aged children (grade 4-6) from a Kanien'kehaka (Mohawk) community provided a 24 h recall and their height and weight in 1994, 1998 and 2002, in three independent cross-sectional samples. Food consumed between two consecutive meals was defined as a snacking occasion. ANOVA and chi2 tests were used to compare food choices between BMI categories according to food quality criteria and food groups in 2006. Logistic regression models were performed to compare results between normal-weight children and those at risk of overweight and between normal-weight and overweight children.
Energy intake from snacks tended to be higher for children at risk of overweight, compared with the other two BMI categories. Food groups with a higher energy density were also consumed more frequently by these children, with larger average portions of cereal bars (P
OBJECTIVE: To examine the quantitative agreement between a 7 day food record and a diet history interview when these are conducted under the same conditions and to evaluate whether the two methods assess habitual diet intake differently among subgroups of age and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Population study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: A total of 175 men and 173 women aged 30-60 y, selected randomly from a larger population sample of Danish adults. INTERVENTIONS: All subjects had habitual diet intake assessed by a diet history interview and completed a 7 day food record within 3 weeks following the interview. The diet history interview and coding of records were performed by the same trained dietician. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Median between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake, absolute intake of macronutrients, and nutrient energy percentages. Difference between reported energy intake from both methods and estimated energy expenditure in different subgroups. RESULTS: Energy and macronutrient intake was assessed slightly higher by the 7 day food record than by the diet history interview, but in absolute terms the differences were negligible. The between-method difference in assessment of total energy intake appeared to be stable over the range of age and BMI in both sexes. As compared to estimated total energy expenditure, both diet assessment methods underestimated energy intake by approximately 20%. For both methods the under-reporting increased by BMI in both sexes and by age in men. CONCLUSIONS: Energy and macronutrient intake data collected under even conditions by either a 7 day food record or a diet history interview may be collapsed and analysed independent of the underlying diet method. Both diet methods, however, appear to underestimate energy intake dependent on age and BMI. SPONSORSHIP: Danish Medical Research Council, the FREJA programme.
Little is known about the dietary habits of people with optimal body weight in communities with high overweight and obesity prevalence.
To evaluate carbohydrate intake in relation to overweight and obesity in healthy, free-living adults.
We used a cross-sectional analysis.
The Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2.2 is a cross-sectional survey of Canadians conducted in 2004-2005. There were 4,451 participants aged 18 years and older with anthropometric and dietary data and no comorbid conditions in this analysis.
Outcome variables were body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) and overweight or obesity status (dichotomous) defined as BMI > or =25 compared with BMI
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Aug;88(2):324-3218689367
Cites: Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Apr;65(4 Suppl):1220S-1228S; discussion 1229S-1231S9094926
OBJECTIVE: To describe the differences in socio-economic characteristics and body measurements between low, adequate and high energy reporting (LER, AER and HER) teenagers; furthermore, to investigate the relationship to misreporting mothers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Habitual dietary intake was reported in a questionnaire. Classification into LER, AER and HER using the Goldberg equation within three activity groups based on physical activity questionnaire and calculated BMR. SETTING: Stockholm, Sweden. SUBJECTS: Four hundred and forty-one 16-17-year-old teenagers (57 % girls) and their mothers. RESULT: Of the teenagers, 17-19 % were classified as HER, while 13-16 % as LER. There was a highly significant trend from HER to LER in BMI (P
To study the prevalence of overweight (BMI > 27 kg/m2) and major life-style determinants of energy balance in Finland, in 1982 and 1992.
640 men and 677 women in 1982, and 664 men and 765 women 1992.
BMI, dietary intake (3 d food record), physical activity and energy expenditure (self-administered questionnaire), data on smoking and educational status.
The prevalence of overweight men was 39% in 1982 and 43% in 1992, and of women 33% and 34%, respectively. In 1992, the reported daily energy intake was 1203 kJ lower in men, and 711 kJ lower in women, compared with 1982 (P
OBJECTIVES: To determine the differences in macronutrient and food group contribution to total food and energy intakes between Estonian and Swedish under-, normal- and overweight schoolchildren, and to estimate the association between diet and body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison between Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents of different BMI groups. SETTING: Twenty-five schools from one region in Estonia and 42 in two regions of central Sweden. SUBJECTS: In total 2308 participants (1176 from Estonia and 1132 from Sweden), including 1141 children with a mean age of 9.6 +/- 0.5 years and 1167 adolescents with a mean age of 15.5 +/- 0.6 years. RESULTS: Overweight was more prevalent among younger girls in Sweden (17.0 vs. 8.9%) and underweight among girls of both age groups in Estonia (7.9 vs. 3.5% in younger and 10.5 vs. 5.1% in older age group of girls). Compared with that of normal- and underweight peers, the diet of overweight Estonian children contained more energy as fat (36.8 vs. 31.7%) but less as carbohydrates, and they consumed more milk and meat products. Absolute BMI of Estonian participants was associated positively with energy consumption from eggs and negatively with energy consumption from sweets and sugar. Swedish overweight adolescents tended to consume more energy from protein and milk products. Risk of being overweight was positively associated with total energy intake and energy from fish or meat products. In both countries the association of overweight and biological factors (pubertal maturation, parental BMI) was stronger than with diet. CONCLUSION: The finding that differences in dietary intake between under-, normal- and overweight schoolchildren are country-specific suggests that local dietary habits should be considered in intervention projects addressing overweight.
To characterise the diet of First Nations in north-western Ontario, highlight foods for a lifestyle intervention and develop a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (QFFQ).
Cross-sectional survey using single 24 h dietary recalls.
Eight remote and semi-remote First Nations reserves in north-western Ontario.
129 First Nations (Oji-Cree and Ojibway) men and women aged between 18 and 80 years.
The greatest contributors to energy were breads, pasta dishes and chips (contributing over 20 % to total energy intake). 'Added fats' such as butter and margarine added to breads and vegetables made up the single largest source of total fat intake (8.4 %). The largest contributors to sugar were sugar itself, soda and other sweetened beverages (contributing over 45 % combined). The mean number of servings consumed of fruits, vegetables and dairy products were much lower than recommended. The mean daily meat intake was more than twice that recommended. A 119-item QFFQ was developed including seven bread items, five soups or stews, 24 meat- or fish-based dishes, eight rice or pasta dishes, nine fruits and 14 vegetables. Frequency of consumption was assessed by eight categories ranging from 'Never or less than one time in one month' to 'two or more times a day'.
We were able to highlight foods for intervention to improve dietary intake based on the major sources of energy, fat and sugar and the low consumption of fruit and vegetable items. The QFFQ is being used to evaluate a diet and lifestyle intervention in First Nations in north-western Ontario.
The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to compare eating behaviours (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger), dietary profile and physiological variables according to the practice of dieting: current dieting; history of dieting in the 10-year period that preceded the study; no dieting during the same period. Dieting history, anthropometric markers of adiposity, RMR, dietary profile (3 d food record) and eating behaviours (three-factor eating questionnaire) were determined in a sample of 244 men and 352 women. A greater proportion of women (31.8 %) than men (16.8 %) reported that they had been on a diet over the past 10 years (P=0.0001). In both genders, current and past dieters had a higher BMI (P
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if eating habits among adolescents are related to body fatness and gender. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden, 2001-2002. SUBJECTS: Two hundred and seventy-five girls and 199 boys, aged 16-17 years. METHOD: Questionnaires were used for dietary intake and meal frequency, BodPod for measuring body fatness (BF%). In all, 169 girls and 128 boys were classified as adequate reporters (AR) of energy intake, and were used in the dietary analyses. The whole sample was used in the meal frequency analyses. RESULTS: The correlation between reported energy intake and weight in the AR group was 0.23 (P
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To assess the amount of food produced in a hospital kitchen and the amount wasted. To assess the amount of food eaten by patients in relation to their energy needs. To assess whether the food production and wastage could be reduced by training members of the staff. METHODS: The study was carried out in a general district hospital in Denmark. The amount of food produced in the hospital kitchen and returned uneaten (wasted) was determined. In a representative sample of patients, the energy expenditure was calculated and in the same patients, the energy and protein intake was determined. Following training of the hospital staff the first part was repeated. RESULTS: On average, 11.1 MJ and 112 g of protein were ordered per patient per day. From these amounts on average 3.1 MJ and 33 g protein were wasted per patient per day. The total average energy expenditure was calculated to be 7.5 MJ per patient per day; however, on average, the daily energy intake was only 4.5 MJ and daily protein intake 46 g per patient. Sixty percent of the patients showed evidence of malnutrition as judged from the hospital notes. However, the staff only drew attention to this in 20% of the cases. Following training of the hospital staff, a new investigation showed no significant changes in the amount of food ordered and wasted. CONCLUSION: Despite a supply of food, which was much higher than the patients' needs, the patients have only approx. 60% of their energy need covered. We suggest a reorganization of nutrition in hospitals, so that this is made the responsibility of specific staff members.