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44 records – page 1 of 5.

Ambient concentrations of airborne endotoxin in two cities in the interior of British Columbia, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101885
Source
J Environ Monit. 2011 Mar;13(3):631-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Janice Allen
Karen Bartlett
Mark Graham
Peter Jackson
Author Affiliation
Natural Resources & Environmental Studies Institute, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
J Environ Monit. 2011 Mar;13(3):631-40
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - analysis
British Columbia
Cities
Endotoxins - analysis
Particulate Matter - chemistry
Seasons
Weather
Abstract
This study measured and analyzed the outdoor airborne endotoxin concentration, on particulate matter (PM²·5 and PM¹°), for two cities in the interior of British Columbia, Canada. Samples were collected throughout one seasonal cycle, from October 2005 to September 2006. It was found that concentrations were generally highest in the summer and fall, and lowest in the winter and spring. Temperature and relative humidity were found to be most influential, with highest endotoxin concentrations recorded during warm periods and moderate relative humidity (35 to 75 percent). No clear association of concentration with wind direction was observed. Results were comparable between the two cities considered in this study, and concentrations were similar to or slightly higher than those reported by other studies considering urban locations. Endotoxin concentration was also found to be positively associated with agricultural dust sources identified by a source apportionment study conducted at one of the sampling locations.
PubMed ID
21264425 View in PubMed
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Assessment of particulates and bioaerosols in eastern Canadian sawmills.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature196695
Source
AIHAJ. 2000 Sep-Oct;61(5):727-32
Publication Type
Article
Author
C. Duchaine
A. Mériaux
P S Thorne
Y. Cormier
Author Affiliation
Centre de Recherche, Hôpital Laval, Ste Foy, Québec, Canada. duchaine@mediom.qc.ca
Source
AIHAJ. 2000 Sep-Oct;61(5):727-32
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Canada
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis
Fungi - isolation & purification
Humans
Occupational Exposure
Wood
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to quantify and identify the airborne contamination in eastern Canadian sawmills. Seventeen sawmills were chosen to cover a wide range of size, geographic distribution, and wood species processed. Within each sawmill different work sites (debarking, sawing, sorting, or planing) were studied separately. Area sampling was performed for exposure assessment. Microbial contaminants were assessed with all-glass impingers 30 and six-stage Andersen microbial samplers; appropriate selective media and culture conditions for bacteria, thermophilic actinomycetes, molds, and yeasts were used. Inhalable dust, endotoxins, temperature, and humidity also were measured. Penicillium species were the most predominant molds with up to 40 different Penicillium species identified. Debarking was the working site most highly contaminated by molds, bacteria, and endotoxins (p=0.0001). At this working site mold levels reached a maximum of 1.5 x 10(6) CFU/m3, whereas the median values for culturable bacteria and endotoxin were 21,620 CFU/m3 and 1,081 endotoxin units/m3, respectively. Planing sites were the most highly dust contaminated (median: 3.0 mg/m3) (p
PubMed ID
11071425 View in PubMed
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Asthma and allergic symptoms in relation to house dust endotoxin: Phase Two of the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC II).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature92163
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 Dec;38(12):1911-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Gehring U.
Strikwold M.
Schram-Bijkerk D.
Weinmayr G.
Genuneit J.
Nagel G.
Wickens K.
Siebers R.
Crane J.
Doekes G.
Di Domenicantonio R.
Nilsson L.
Priftanji A.
Sandin A.
El-Sharif N.
Strachan D.
van Hage M.
von Mutius E.
Brunekreef B.
Author Affiliation
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. u.gehring@uu.nl
Source
Clin Exp Allergy. 2008 Dec;38(12):1911-20
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Albania - epidemiology
Allergens - analysis - immunology
Antibody Specificity
Asthma - epidemiology - immunology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - analysis - immunology
Endotoxins - analysis - immunology
Female
Great Britain - epidemiology
Humans
Hypersensitivity - epidemiology - immunology
Immunoglobulin E - blood - immunology
Italy - epidemiology
Logistic Models
Male
New Zealand - epidemiology
Questionnaires
Respiratory Sounds - immunology
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Several studies have consistently reported inverse associations between exposure to endotoxin in house dust and atopy. With regard to the association between house dust endotoxin and asthma, the results are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between house dust endotoxin levels and respiratory symptoms and atopy in populations from largely different countries. METHODS: Data were collected within the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Two, a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 840 children aged 9-12 years from six centres in the five countries of Albania, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Living room floor dust was collected and analysed for endotoxin. Health end-points and demographics were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Atopy was assessed by measurements of allergen-specific IgE against a panel of inhalant allergens. Associations between house dust endotoxin and health outcomes were analysed by logistic regression. Odds ratios (ORs) were presented for an overall interquartile range increase in exposure. RESULTS: Many associations between house dust endotoxin in living room floor dust and health outcomes varied between countries. Combined across countries, endotoxin levels were inversely associated with asthma ever [adjusted OR (95% confidence interval (CI)) 0.53 (0.29-0.96) for endotoxin levels per m(2) of living room floor] and current wheeze [adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.93) for endotoxin levels per gram of living room floor dust]. There were inverse associations between endotoxin concentrations and atopy, which were statistically significant in unadjusted analyses, but not after adjustment for gender, parental allergies, cat and house dust mite allergens. No associations were found with dust quantity and between endotoxin exposure and hayfever. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest an inverse association between endotoxin levels in living room floor dust and asthma in children.
PubMed ID
18771486 View in PubMed
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Biological activities of respirable dust from Eastern Canadian peat moss factories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144167
Source
Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Jun;24(4):1273-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Valérie Létourneau
Anne Mériaux
Nicole Goyer
Jamila Chakir
Yvon Cormier
Caroline Duchaine
Author Affiliation
Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec (Hôpital Laval), 2725 chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada G1V 4G5. valerie.letourneau@criucpq.ulaval.ca
Source
Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Jun;24(4):1273-8
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - toxicity
Bacteria - isolation & purification
Canada
Cell Line
Colony Count, Microbial
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis - toxicity
Environmental monitoring
Fungi - classification - isolation & purification
Humans
Inhalation Exposure - analysis
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Quartz - analysis
Respiratory Mucosa - drug effects
Sphagnopsida
Spores, Fungal
Toxicity Tests - methods
Abstract
Bacteria, moulds, endotoxin and quartz from respirable dust of agricultural and industrial buildings are typically incriminated for the respiratory health decline of exposed workers despite that dust being an undefined mixture and quantification methods of aerosolized bacteria, moulds or endotoxin not being standardized yet. We developed an in vitro alveolar epithelial cell system in which biological activities of peat moss factories' dust might be correlated to bacteria, mould, endotoxin and quartz concentrations of the analyzed samples. Following exposure, interleukin-8 protein secretion, necrosis and apoptosis of the exposed A549 cells were monitored respectively with ELISA on cell supernatants, trypan blue exclusion and DNA fragmentation detection by flow cytometry. Respirable dust was collected with liquid impingers and respirable quartz with 10mm Dorr-Oliver cyclones. We quantified mesophilic bacteria, mesophilic moulds and endotoxins from liquid impinger samples. No correlation was observed between biological activities of dust and bacteria, mould, endotoxin or quartz concentrations under our experimental conditions. Our speculation is that simple measurements, such as dust concentrations, may not be adequate indicators of the human respiratory health hazard for a given environment.
PubMed ID
20398748 View in PubMed
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Bronchopulmonary pathology in workers exposed to organic fodder dust.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature15573
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2000;7(1):17-23
Publication Type
Article
Date
2000
Author
A A Kuchuk
A. Basanets
K. Louhelainen
Author Affiliation
Institute for Occupational Health, 75 Saksagansky str., 252033 Kiev-33, Ukraine.
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2000;7(1):17-23
Date
2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agricultural Workers' Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - physiopathology
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Animal Feed
Asthma - epidemiology - etiology
Bronchial Hyperreactivity - etiology
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Bronchitis - epidemiology - etiology
Chronic Disease
Comparative Study
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
Emphysema - epidemiology - etiology
Endotoxins - analysis
Female
Humans
Lung Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Time
Ukraine - epidemiology
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate work-related respiratory symptoms, the prevalence of chronic lung diseases and ODTS, and to study the lung function and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the workers of Ukrainian fodder production facilities. 240 workers of two Ukrainian fodder production plants have been examined. Dust concentrations in the air of working zone were different, reaching 48.2 mg/m(3) in the first plant and 16.8 mg/m(3) in the second. Endotoxin levels were 240.0 ng/m(3) and 1.8 ng/m(3) respectively. The length of service at the first plant exceeded 2 times that at the second. In the actual research the investigation of respiratory symptoms, lung function and bronchial reactivity was carried out. A comparison between animal feed workers and internal controls revealed work-related symptoms. The predominant symptomatic and lung function effects indicate a clinical picture related to chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 26.4 +/- 4.0% at the first plant and 8.8 +/- 4.8% at the second one (p
PubMed ID
10865240 View in PubMed
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Childhood cat allergen exposure in three European countries: The AIRALLERG study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81960
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Oct 1;369(1-3):82-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1-2006
Author
Giovannangelo Mariëlla
Gehring Ulrike
Nordling Emma
Oldenwening Marieke
de Wind Siegfried
Bellander Tom
Almqvist Catarina
Heinrich Joachim
Hoek Gerard
Brunekreef Bert
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental and Occupational Health, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2006 Oct 1;369(1-3):82-90
Date
Oct-1-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Allergens - analysis
Animals
Beds
Cats
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Floors and Floorcoverings
Germany
Glycoproteins - analysis
Housing
Humans
Netherlands
Sweden
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Cat allergen is a major cause of morbidity among sensitised asthma patients, but little is known about distribution of cat allergen exposure and its determinants in homes. METHODS: We measured cat allergen and potential determinants of cat allergen levels in more than 1000 homes. House dust was collected from children's mattresses and living room floors in approximately 360 homes in The Netherlands, Sweden and Germany and analysed for Fel d 1 in one central laboratory. Exposure was expressed both in concentration (ng/g) and in loads (ng/m2). RESULTS: Levels on mattresses were similar in Sweden and Germany but higher on Dutch mattresses. Dutch floors had higher concentrations than Swedish floors, which had higher concentrations than German floors. The differences in load were less clear. Cat allergen on mattress and floor were moderately to highly correlated. The most important variable quantifying cat allergen variation was the presence of a cat. Floor cover type and last time that floor was vacuumed were important in all three countries. The ratio of cat allergen loads between mattresses from homes with and without cats was higher for Sweden and Germany than for The Netherlands. This is likely related to higher prevalence of cat ownership in The Netherlands which leads to more contamination of homes in which cats were never held. Dust samples from 27-35% of mattresses from homes without cats contained more than 1000 ng/g cat allergen. CONCLUSION: With the exception of cat ownership and floor cover, questionnaire data on housing characteristics did not accurately predict cat allergen in the home.
PubMed ID
16757015 View in PubMed
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Contribution of pharmaceuticals, fecal bacteria and endotoxin to the inflammatory responses to inland waters.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258274
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Aug 1;488-489:228-35
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1-2014
Author
Ahmed El Marghani
Ajay Pradhan
Asmerom Seyoum
Hazem Khalaf
Torbjön Ros
Lars-Håkan Forsberg
Tomas Nermark
Lisa Osterman
Ulf Wiklund
Per Ivarsson
Jana Jass
Per-Erik Olsson
Author Affiliation
Örebro Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro SE-70182, Sweden.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2014 Aug 1;488-489:228-35
Date
Aug-1-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bacteria - growth & development
Cells, Cultured
Endotoxins - analysis - toxicity
Environmental monitoring
Fresh Water - chemistry - microbiology
Humans
Immunity - drug effects
Pesticides - analysis
Pharmaceutical Preparations - analysis
Sweden
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis - toxicity
Abstract
The increasing contamination of freshwater with pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides and other organic compounds are of major concern. As these contaminants are detected at trace levels in the environment it is important to determine if they elicit biological responses at the observed levels. In addition to chemical pollutants, there is also a concern for increasing levels of bacteria and other microorganisms in freshwater systems. In an earlier study, we observed the activation of inflammatory systems downstream of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in southern Sweden. We also observed that the water contained unidentified components that were pro-inflammatory and potentiated the immune response in human urinary bladder epithelial cells. In order to determine if these effects were unique for the studied site or represent a common response in Swedish water, we have now performed a study on three WWTPs and their recipient waters in central Sweden. Analysis of immune responses in urinary bladder epithelial cells, monocyte-like cells and blood mononuclear cells confirm that these waters activate the immune system as well as induce pro-inflammatory responses. The results indicate that the cytokine profiles correlate to the endotoxin load of the waters rather than to the levels of pharmaceuticals or culturable bacteria load, suggesting that measurements of endotoxin levels and immune responses would be a valuable addition to the analysis of inland waters.
PubMed ID
24836131 View in PubMed
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Determinants of house dust, endotoxin, and ß-(1?3)-D-glucan in homes of Danish children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature278844
Source
Indoor Air. 2015 Jun;25(3):245-59
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
G. Holst
A. Høst
G. Doekes
H W Meyer
A M Madsen
T. Sigsgaard
Source
Indoor Air. 2015 Jun;25(3):245-59
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Animals
Beds
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Denmark
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Floors and Floorcoverings
Housing
Humans
Male
Pets
beta-Glucans - analysis
Abstract
Little is known about the geographic variation and determinants of bacterial endotoxin and ß-(1,3)-D-glucan in Danish house dust. In a population of 317 children, we: (i) described loads and concentrations of floor dust, endotoxin, and ß-(1?3)-D-glucan and (ii) their correlations and (iii) assessed their determinants; (iv) Finally, we compared our findings with previous European studies. Bedroom floor dust was analyzed for endotoxin content by the kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay and for ß-(1?3)-D-glucan by the inhibition enzyme immunoassay. The parents answered questions regarding potential determinants. We found: geometric means (geometric standard deviations) 186 mg/m(2) (4.3) for dust; 5.46 × 10(3) EU/m(2) (8.0) and 31.1 × 10(3) EU/g (2.6) for endotoxin; and 142 µg/m(2) (14.3) and 0.71 × 10(3) µg/g (7.3) for ß-(1?3)-D-glucan. High correlations (r > 0.75) were found between floor dust and endotoxin and ß-(1?3)-D-glucan loads, while endotoxin and ß-(1?3)-D-glucan concentrations were moderately correlated (r = 0.36-0.41) with the dust load. Having a carpet was positively associated with dust load and with endotoxin and ß-(1?3)-D-glucan concentrations. Pet keeping, dwelling type, and dwelling location were determinants of endotoxin concentrations. No other determinants were associated with ß-(1?3)-D-glucan concentrations. Compared with other European studies, we found lower ß-(1?3)-D-glucan loads and concentrations but higher endotoxin loads and concentrations suggesting a geographically determined different composition of Danish floor dust compared with other European regions.
PubMed ID
25039673 View in PubMed
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Determinants of house dust endotoxin in three European countries - the AIRALLERG study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78996
Source
Indoor Air. 2007 Feb;17(1):70-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2007
Author
Giovannangelo M.
Gehring U.
Nordling E.
Oldenwening M.
Terpstra G.
Bellander T.
Hoek G.
Heinrich J.
Brunekreef B.
Author Affiliation
Utrecht University, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Source
Indoor Air. 2007 Feb;17(1):70-9
Date
Feb-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Beds
Cats
Child
Dogs
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - analysis
Floors and Floorcoverings
Germany
Housing
Humans
Netherlands
Rabbits
Sweden
Abstract
The comparison of endotoxin levels between study populations and countries is limited as a result of differences in sampling, extraction, and storage procedures. The objective of this study is to assess the levels and determinants of endotoxin in mattress and living room floor dust samples from three European countries, namely, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, using a standardized sampling, storage, and analysis protocol. The mattress and living room floor dust was collected from the homes of 1065 German, Dutch, and Swedish (pre-)school children. All the samples were collected in the cool season and analyzed for endotoxin in a central laboratory. The determinants were assessed by a standardized questionnaire. The endotoxin concentrations in mattress and living room floor dust were found to be the highest in German homes and lowest in the Swedish ones. Differences between the geometric means were small (factor 1.1-1.7). Most of the associations between endotoxin concentrations and potential determinants were not statistically significant and heterogeneous across countries. However, keeping pets and having more than four persons living in the home were consistently associated with up to 1.7-fold higher endotoxin concentrations in mattress and floor dust. Furthermore, having carpets or rugs, and opening the windows frequently was associated with up to 3.4-fold and 1.3-fold higher endotoxin concentrations in living room floor dust, respectively. The proportion of variance explained by the questionnaire variables was generally low. In conclusion, the data on housing characteristics did not accurately predict the endotoxin concentrations in house dust, and could only partly explain the differences between countries. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The differences between the endotoxin concentrations in German, Dutch, and Swedish homes are small. House dust endotoxin concentrations are associated with a number of housing factors, such as pet-ownership, floor cover, number of persons living in the home, and ventilation. The variability of the endotoxin levels between homes and countries can only be partly explained by these factors.
PubMed ID
17257154 View in PubMed
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Documentation of the endotoxins present in the ambient air of cotton fiber textile mills in Québec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature162129
Source
J Environ Monit. 2007 Aug;9(8):869-76
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2007
Author
Geneviève Marchand
Michèle Lalonde
Yves Beaudet
Gilles Boivin
Sylvie Villeneuve
Carole Pépin
Author Affiliation
IRSST (Institut de Recherche Robert-Sauvé en Santé et en Sécurité au Travail), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve ouest, Montréal, QC H3A 3C2, Canada.
Source
J Environ Monit. 2007 Aug;9(8):869-76
Date
Aug-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis - toxicity
Cotton Fiber
Endotoxins - analysis - toxicity
Humans
Lung Diseases - etiology
Occupational Diseases
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Particle Size
Quebec
Textile Industry
Abstract
Cotton workers are recognized as being at risk of developing occupational lung diseases. Some researchers have identified endotoxins as being a potential etiologic agent for some of the respiratory problems. This study wants to document the concentration of endotoxins found in the ambient air of textile mills where cotton fibers are handled and to identify the processing steps where the highest endotoxins concentrations in the air were found and the one where the relative limit values (RLVs) are exceeded. The 4 mills studied process cotton fibers. All the air samples were analyzed using the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocytes lysate LAL method using a kinetic detection principle based on the IRSST's standard method. In this study, a large variability in the concentrations of endotoxins in the air was observed, depending on the mill, the processing step, and the time. Despite these variations, some processes can be identified as being major generators of endotoxins in the ambient air of the mills. The highest concentrations were measured in the weaving and drawing processes and reached 10,000 EU m(-3) of air. The opening, cleaning, carding, spinning and drawing processes are the other major endotoxins generating processes with concentrations from 24 to 8,700 EU m(-3) of air. The endotoxins concentrations exceeded the RLVs for 55% of the workstations in this project. This study demonstrated that endotoxins levels in the cotton industry are high and appropriate control measures are needed.
PubMed ID
17671669 View in PubMed
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44 records – page 1 of 5.