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Airborne endotoxin in different background environments and seasons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81441
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(1):81-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
2006
Author
Madsen Anne Mette
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Occupational Health, Lerso Parkalle 105 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. amm@ami.dk
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(1):81-6
Date
2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis
Denmark
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Humans
Occupational Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Occupational Exposure
Occupational Health
Reference Standards
Reference Values
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology - prevention & control
Seasons
Abstract
Endotoxin is a cell wall component from Gram-negative bacteria, and inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. Background levels of endotoxin have not yet been extensively described. In this study, airborne endotoxin was measured with a standardized protocol in 5 types of background environment (169 samples) in Denmark from October to May. Endotoxin levels in a greenhouse (median = 13.2 EU/m3) were significantly higher than in the other environments. The air from biofuel plants (median = 5.3 EU/m3), the air on congested streets (median = 4.4 EU/m3) and on an agricultural field (median = 2.9 EU/m3) had higher endotoxin contents than the air in industrial areas (median = 1.3 EU/m3) or in towns (median = 0.33 EU/m3). Levels in industrial areas were significantly higher than in towns. A literature study revealed background levels of endotoxin on different continents between 0.063-410 EU/m3, with median or mean values between 0.063-3.6 EU/m3. Endotoxin concentrations in towns and industrial areas were higher in April and May than in autumn and winter, and were higher in October than in winter. These data of exposure in background environments and of seasonal variation are helpful for public health practitioners, epidemiologists and industrial hygienists.
PubMed ID
16841877 View in PubMed
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Allergens and endotoxin in settled dust from day-care centers and schools in Oslo, Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29525
Source
Indoor Air. 2005 Oct;15(5):356-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
C. Instanes
G. Hetland
S. Berntsen
M. Løvik
P. Nafstad
Author Affiliation
Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. christine.instanes@fhi.no
Source
Indoor Air. 2005 Oct;15(5):356-62
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis - prevention & control
Allergens - adverse effects - analysis
Animals
Antigens, Dermatophagoides - analysis
Cats
Child
Child Day Care Centers
Child, Preschool
Dogs
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Glycoproteins - analysis
Humans
Norway
Pyroglyphidae
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Schools
Abstract
Allergy to indoor allergens can cause frequent and severe health problems in children. Because little is known about the content of allergens in the indoor environments in Norway, we wanted to assess the levels of cat, dog and mite allergens in schools and day-care centers in Oslo. Allergen levels in dust samples from 155 classrooms and 81 day-care units were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Additionally, we measured the levels of endotoxin in 31 day-care units, using the limulus amebocyte lysate test. Most of the dust samples contained detectable amounts of cat and dog allergens. In mattress and floor dust (day-care centers), and curtain and floor dust (schools) the median Fel d 1 levels were 0.17, 0.002, 0.02 and 0.079 microg/m2, while the median Can f 1 levels were 1.7, 0.03, 0.1 and 0.69 microg/m2, respectively. Levels of cat and dog allergens in school floor dust were associated with the number of pupils with animals at home. In contrast,
PubMed ID
16108908 View in PubMed
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The association between endotoxin and lung function among children and adolescents living in a rural area.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128591
Source
Can Respir J. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):e89-94
Publication Type
Article
Author
Joshua A Lawson
James A Dosman
Donna C Rennie
Jeremy Beach
Stephen C Newman
Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan
Author Affiliation
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. josh.lawson@usask.ca
Source
Can Respir J. 2011 Nov-Dec;18(6):e89-94
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Asthma - etiology
Case-Control Studies
Child
Cotinine - analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Respiratory Sounds - etiology
Rural Health
Saliva - chemistry
Saskatchewan
Sex Factors
Spirometry
Tobacco Smoke Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Vital Capacity
Abstract
BACKGROUND/
Knowledge of the effects of domestic endotoxin on children's lung function is limited. The association between domestic endotoxin and asthma or wheeze and lung function among school-age children (six to 18 years of age) was examined. The interaction between endotoxin and other personal and environmental characteristics and lung function was also assessed.
A case-control study was conducted in and around the rural community of Humboldt, Saskatchewan, between 2005 and 2007. Parents of cases reported either doctor-diagnosed asthma or wheeze in the previous year. Controls were randomly selected from those not reporting these conditions. Data were collected by questionnaire to ascertain symptoms and conditions, while spirometry was used to measure lung function including forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Dust collected from the child's play area floor and the child's mattress was used to quantify endotoxin, and saliva was collected to quantify cotinine levels and assess tobacco smoke exposure.
There were 102 cases and 207 controls included in the present study. Lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s was associated with higher mattress endotoxin load among female cases (beta=-0.25, SE=0.07 [P
Notes
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PubMed ID
22187693 View in PubMed
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Cross-shift study of exposure-response relationships between bioaerosol exposure and respiratory effects in the Norwegian grain and animal feed production industry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature282648
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2016 Oct;73(10):685-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Anne Straumfors
Kari Kulvik Heldal
Wijnand Eduard
Inge M Wouters
Dag G Ellingsen
Marit Skogstad
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2016 Oct;73(10):685-93
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aerosols
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects - analysis
Animal Feed - adverse effects
Dust
Edible Grain - adverse effects
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Humans
Industry
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Nasal Mucosa - microbiology
Norway - epidemiology
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Smoking - epidemiology
Spirometry
Surveys and Questionnaires
Young Adult
Abstract
We have studied cross-shift respiratory responses of several individual bioaerosol components of the dust in the grain and feed industry in Norway.
Cross-shift changes in lung function and nasal congestion, as well as in respiratory and systemic symptoms of 56 exposed workers and 36 referents, were recorded on the same day as full-shift exposure to the inhalable aerosol fraction was assessed. Exposure-response associations were investigated by regression analysis.
The workers were exposed on average to 1.0 mg/m(3) of grain dust, 440 EU/m(3) of endotoxin, 6 ?g/m(3) of ?-1,3-glucans, 17?10(4)/m(3) of bacteria and 4?10(4)/m(3) of fungal spores during work. The exposure was associated with higher prevalence of self-reported eye and airway symptoms, which were related to the individual microbial components in a complex manner. Fatigue and nose symptoms were strongest associated with fungal spores, cough with or without phlegm was associated with grain dust and fungal spores equally strong and wheeze/tight chest/dyspnoea was strongest associated with grain dust. Bioaerosol exposure did not lead to cross-shift lung function decline, but several microbial components had influence on nose congestion.
Exposure to fungal spores and dust showed stronger associations with respiratory symptoms and fatigue than endotoxin exposure. The associations with dust suggest that there are other components in dust than the ones studied that induce these effects.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27473330 View in PubMed
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Endotoxin exposure among softwood lumber mill workers in the Canadian province of British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature199934
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 1999;6(2):141-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
M. Dennekamp
P. Demers
K. Bartlett
H. Davies
K. Teschke
Author Affiliation
Department of Environmental & Occupational Medicine, University of Aberdeen, UK. pdemers@unixg.ubc.ca
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 1999;6(2):141-6
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Microbiology
British Columbia
Cohort Studies
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Humans
Limulus Test
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects
Respiratory Tract Diseases - etiology
Statistics, nonparametric
Wood
Abstract
An increased prevalence of respiratory problems among softwood lumber mill workers has been observed in a number of studies. These workers are potentially exposed to a variety of respiratory hazards including wood dust, abietic or other resin acids, monoterpenes, and fungi, as well as endotoxins. The objectives of this study were to determine if lumber mill workers were exposed to hazardous levels of airborne endotoxin and to identify the factors contributing to high exposures. Personal endotoxin samples (n = 216) were collected in four lumber mills in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The mean personal exposure concentration was 2.09 ng/m.(3) and 9% of the samples were above 5 ng/m.(3). Factors related to the personal endotoxin exposure were type of job, use of compressed air, the percentage of time spent in a booth or cab during a shift, and dust concentration. Log storage practices were also suspected of playing a role. The levels of exposure observed in this study were low compared to the levels reported for populations with respiratory problems attributed to endotoxins.
PubMed ID
10607995 View in PubMed
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Longitudinal evaluation of dose-response relationships for environmental exposures and pulmonary function in swine production workers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature49272
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1996 Jan;29(1):33-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1996
Author
S J Reynolds
K J Donham
P. Whitten
J A Merchant
L F Burmeister
W J Popendorf
Author Affiliation
Department of Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA.
Source
Am J Ind Med. 1996 Jan;29(1):33-40
Date
Jan-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Agriculture
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Cohort Studies
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Dust - adverse effects - analysis
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis
Forced Expiratory Volume - drug effects - physiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Middle Aged
Occupational Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Swine
Time Factors
Abstract
Studies describing respiratory health hazards for workers in swine production facilities have been published in the United States, Sweden, Canada, the Netherlands, and Denmark. Up to 50% of these workers experience bronchitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, hyper-reactive airways disease, chronic mucous membrane irritation, and other respiratory effects. These studies clearly point to the fact that this occupational environment poses a significant health risk hazard, and that control methods are needed to protect the worker. Before precise control strategies can be developed, implemented, and evaluated, dose-response studies are required to determine acceptable target levels for exposure. A previous manuscript described the development of multiple regression equations characterizing the relationships between environmental exposures and pulmonary response in a cohort of 207 swine producers. Baseline pulmonary function was included as a significant predictor of cross-shift decrements in pulmonary function in addition to personal measurements of dust, endotoxin, and ammonia concentrations. These equations were then used to predict specific exposure levels of dust and ammonia that could be expected to elicit significant decrements in cross-shift pulmonary function. This paper presents the results from analysis of follow-up data obtained on this same cohort 2 years after the initial measurements. At the second measurement period of the study (time-2), swine workers were found to have a mean cross-shift decrease in FEV1 of 2%. Cross-shift change in FEV1 was significantly correlated with personal exposures to total dust, total endotoxin, respirable endotoxin, and ammonia. The magnitude of the decrease in FEV1 was associated with increasing airborne concentrations of these environmental parameters thus confirming the dose-response relationship observed in the initial study (time-1). The correlation of dust with FEV1 changes in workers with more than 6 years of exposure (time-1 data) and more than 10 years of exposure (time-2 data) suggests that dust exposure is an important factor in chronic respiratory disease. Additionally, the correlation of endotoxins with FEV1 changes in the group with less than 6 years exposure (time-2 data) suggests endotoxins may have more significance for subacute respiratory effects. The agreement between observed cross-shift FEV1 changes measured in time-2 with changes predicted using regression equations derived from time-1 data demonstrates a consistent dose-response relationship over time for this cohort of swine production workers. This finding provides further support for conclusions of the previous study that levels of 2.5 mg/m3 (total dust) and 7.5 ppm (ammonia) are reasonable guidelines for occupational exposure limits in this environment.
PubMed ID
8808040 View in PubMed
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Short term exposure to low amounts of airway irritants in a swine confinement building and inflammatory markers in blood and exhaled air.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264033
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(3):479-84
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Bjørn Lyngen
Morten Buhagen
Torgunn Qvenild
Kristin Svendsen
Ellen Tufvesson
Bjørn Hilt
Source
Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014;21(3):479-84
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - adverse effects - analysis - metabolism
Animal Husbandry
Animals
Biological Markers - blood - metabolism
Blood Chemical Analysis
Dust - analysis
Endotoxins - adverse effects - analysis - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Housing, Animal
Humans
Male
Norway
Occupational Exposure
Respiratory System - drug effects - immunology
Young Adult
Abstract
Swine confinement buildings are known to contain large concentrations of airway irritants, and a number of studies have shown acute inflammatory effects in previously unexposed subjects when introduced to the environment in such buildings. However, studies comparing different methods of assessing such reactions are lacking, and it is not known if a measurable response could be found at lower exposure rates. The purpose of this study was to investigate exposure levels in a Norwegian swine confinement building, the airway response to such exposure, and to compare invasive and non-invasive methods of response measurement.
Twelve medical students who were previously unexposed to swine dust stayed in a swine confinement building in Norway for 4 hours, and underwent measurements before and after the start of exposure. The same measurements were also performed beforehand, on the same weekday without exposure, in such a manner that the subjects were their own controls.
The exposure assessment showed considerably lower concentrations of organic dust and endotoxin than earlier studies. However, small, but significant increases in markers of airway inflammation, were found.
Airway response can be measured after lower exposure to airborne irritants in swine confinement buildings than previously known. Further research is needed to assess whether this finding can be utilized for preventive purposes.
PubMed ID
25292113 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.