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A 10-year follow-up study of tick-borne encephalitis in the Stockholm area and a review of the literature: need for a vaccination strategy.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature35021
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(3):217-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
M. Haglund
M. Forsgren
G. Lindh
L. Lindquist
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Stockholm Country Council, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(3):217-24
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Child
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - complications - epidemiology - immunology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Headache - complications
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - complications
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Equilibrium
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Sensation Disorders - complications
Seroepidemiologic Studies
Sweden - epidemiology
Vaccination
Abstract
143 people treated for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were included in a retrospective follow-up study. Sequelae and epidemiological characteristics in 114 individuals were analysed. The case fatality rate and the prevalence of residual paresis were low, 1.4 and 2.7%, respectively. However, 40 (35.7%) individuals were found to have a postencephalitic syndrome after a median follow-up time of 47 months, and a majority (77.5%) of these were classified as moderate to severe. Various mental disorders, balance and co-ordination disorders and headache were the most frequently reported symptoms. Increasing age was correlated to a longer duration of hospital stay, longer convalescence and increased risk of permanent sequelae. Results from a neuropsychiatric questionnaire showed marked differences between the subjects with sequelae compared to controls. 57% had noticed a tick bite before admission, and 48% were aware of at least one person in their environment who previously had contracted TBE. 79% were permanent residents or visited endemic areas often and regularly. In conclusion, we have found that TBE in the Stockholm area has a low case fatality rate, but gives rise to a considerable number of different neurological and mental sequelae, which justifies vaccination of a defined risk population in endemic areas.
PubMed ID
8863349 View in PubMed
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Antibody prevalence and clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in Swedish orienteers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature36470
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(5):605-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
1993
Author
R. Gustafson
M. Forsgren
A. Gardulf
M. Granström
B. Svenungsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge Hospital, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1993;25(5):605-11
Date
1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Antibodies, Bacterial - blood
Antibodies, Viral - blood
Bites and Stings
Child
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne - immunology
Encephalitis, Tick-Borne - complications - epidemiology - immunology - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Lyme Disease - complications - epidemiology - immunology
Male
Middle Aged
Prevalence
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sports
Sweden - epidemiology
Ticks
Trees
Viral Vaccines - administration & dosage
Abstract
Antibody prevalence and clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were studied in 362 orienteers from the county of Stockholm during a large relay race in October 1990. From all participating orienteers, a blood sample was collected and a questionnaire completed. Antibody activity to Borrelia burgdorferi was measured using a sonicated whole spirochete antigen in an ELISA, and to TBE virus (TBEV) by ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. A past history of LB was reported by 6% of the orienteers and antibodies to B. burgdorferi were found in 9%. Antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi was found in 1-2% of the sera from 3 different control groups comprising 502 persons living in non-endemic areas. The corresponding value was 9% in sera from a fourth control group consisting of 150 persons living in the city of Stockholm. A past history of TBE was reported by 1 orienteer (0.3%) and detectable antibodies to TBEV in non-immunized individuals were found in 1%. No antibody activity to TBEV could be detected in sera from the control individuals living in the 3 non-endemic areas, but in 5% of the controls from Stockholm. In this study, there was no indication that frequent or severe manifestations of LB or TBE are common among orienteers in Sweden.
PubMed ID
8284645 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Severe TBE with sequelae can also affect young children. Vaccination advice to children should be individualized, degree of exposure essential].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105891
Source
Lakartidningen. 2013 Oct 16-22;110(42):1861-4
Publication Type
Article