There is a scarcity of prospective long-term studies on work disability caused by depression. We investigated predictors for disability pension among psychiatric patients with MDD.
The Vantaa Depression Study followed up prospectively 269 psychiatric in- and out-patients with DSM-IV MDD for 5 years with a life chart, including 230 (91.3%) patients belonging to labour force. Information on disability pensions was obtained from interviews, patient records and registers.
Within 5 years, 20% of the patients belonging to labour force at baseline were granted a disability pension. In multivariate analyses, the significant baseline predictors for granted disability pension were age =50 years (HR = 3.91, P
Mental disorders are a key cause of sickness absence (SA) and challenge prolonging working careers. Thus, evidence on the development of SA trends is needed. In this study, educational differences in long SAs due to mental disorders were examined in two age groups among employees of the City of Helsinki from 2004 to 2013.
All permanently and temporarily employed staff aged 18-34 and 35-49 were included in the analyses (n=~27800 per year). SA spells of =14 days due to mental disorders were examined annually. Education was classified to higher and lower levels. Joinpoint regression was used to identify major turning points in SA trends.
Joinpoint regression models showed that lower educated groups had more long SAs spells due to mental disorders than those groups with higher education. SA trends decreased during the study period in all studied age and educational groups. Lower educated age groups had similar SA trends. Younger employees with higher education had the fewest SAs.
A clear educational gradient was found in long SAs due to mental disorders during the study period. SA trends decreased from 2004 to 2013.
This paper considers the ways in which accounts from Glasgow Catholics diverge from those of Protestants and explores the reasons why people leave jobs, including health grounds. Accounts reveal experiences distinctive to Catholics, of health-threatening stress, obstacles to career progression within (mainly) private-sector organisations, and interactional difficulties which create particular problems for (mainly) middle class men. This narrows the employment options for upwardly mobile Catholics, who may then resort to self-employment or other similarly stressful options. The paper considers whether the competence of Catholics or Catholic cultural factors are implicated in thwarting social mobility among Catholics or, alternatively, whether institutional sectarianism is involved. We conclude that, of these options, theories of institutional sectarianism provide the hypothesis which currently best fits these data. In Glasgow, people of indigenous Irish descent are recognisable from their names and Catholic background and are identified as Catholic by others. Overt historical exclusion of Catholics from middle class employment options now seems to take unrecognised forms in routine assumptions and practices which restrict Catholic employment opportunities. It is argued that younger Catholics use education to overcome the obstacles to mobility faced by older people and circumvent exclusions by recourse to middle class public-sector employment. This paper aims to link historical, structural and sectarian patterns of employment experience to accounts of health and work, and in so doing to contribute to an explanation for the relatively poor health of Catholic Glaswegians with Irish roots.
Although depression is common, prevalence estimates of antidepressant use among the workforce and undisputed evidence relating psychosocial work characteristics to depression is scarce. This study cross-sectionally assesses the prevalence of antidepressant use among employed in Sweden and Denmark and prospectively examines associations between work characteristics and antidepressant use.
Data on work demands, influence and learning possibilities was collected 2005-2006 from two representative samples of employed aged 20-59 years from Sweden (n=4351) and Denmark (n=8064) and linked to purchases of antidepressants through national prescription drug registries. Standardized 12-month prevalences were calculated. Cox regressions on work characteristics and incident use were performed separately and estimates pooled.
Employed Swedish residents had higher standardized prevalence than Danish, 6.0% compared to 5.0%. Working fast and conflicting demands were associated with incident use when estimates were pooled, but adjustment for baseline health attenuated these estimates. Emotionally disturbing situations were related to any incident use, and more strongly to use >179 defined daily dosages/year, even after adjustment for various covariates.
Statistics based on national prescription drug registries are influenced by, e.g., treatment seeking behaviours and other reasons for prescription than depression. Selective drop-out may also affect prevalence estimates.
The study indicates that use of antidepressants among the workforce is relatively high and that employed Swedish residents had higher prevalence of antidepressant use than Danish. Relationships between work characteristics and antidepressant use were, however, similar with emotional demands showing the strongest association, indicating that particular groups of employees may be at increased risk.
The objectives of this study are to examine levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety following diagnosis of a haematological malignancy, to determine the incidence of return to work (RTW) and long-term sickness absence (LTSA) during 1-year follow-up and to examine whether fatigue, depression and anxiety are associated with RTW and LTSA in this group of cancer patients.
Questionnaire-based data on fatigue, depression and anxiety were obtained at baseline. In all, 196 patients returned the questionnaire. Of these, 106 patients were on sick leave and 90 patients were working. They were all followed prospectively for 1 year using register-based data on labour market participation.
At baseline, high levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety were more prevalent among sickness absent patients than in those working. Half of the sickness absent patients returned to work during follow-up, and only 10 (11%) working patients experienced LTSA. Sickness absent patients with highest scores of physical fatigue were less likely to RTW than those with lowest scores (RRadj 0.43, 95% CI 0.23-0.78). Similar, we found an association between symptoms of anxiety and RTW (p?=?0.048). This association was though non-significant in multivariable analyses (p?=?0.068). No significant association was found between depression and RTW.
Half of sickness absent patients returned to work, and only a few of working patients experienced LTSA during follow-up. Patients reporting high levels of physical fatigue were less likely to RTW. There was a similar tendency for anxiety, whereas we found no association between depression and RTW. Larger prospective studies are needed.
I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.
A latent means and covariance structure analysis was conducted to assess the construct validity and construct comparability in the measuring of career maturity across boys and girls. The career maturity inventory has been coined Daidalos. The sample consisted of 2,443 high school students recruited from one county in Norway. Of these, 1,132 were males, and 1,311 were females. The mean age of the participants was 17 years of age. Goodness-of-fit statistics provided support for a five-factor first-order model in which the factor loadings, factor covariances and item intercepts were invariant across groups. Additionally, deltaS-B chi2 was shown to be non-significant for the testing of invariance of the measurement model. Three significant differences in latent means were detected, with boys scoring higher on negative attitudes toward school or dropout intentions, and girls scoring higher on career uncertainty and need for world-of-work information.
In 2008, many Western countries faced a great economic recession, the result of which was increased unemployment and reduced public expenditure.
This article focuses on changes in the self-reported mental and physical health and health symptoms of the remaining employees of Icelandic municipalities who worked within the educational system and the care service during the economic recession. We examine gender differences in health and differences between downsized workplaces and workplaces where no downsizing occurred and differences between workplaces with heavy workload and light workload.
The study is based on a balanced panel online survey and focus groups.
The main finding is that both the mental and physical health of employees deteriorated year by year between 2010, 2011 and 2013 in all workplaces although the downsized workplaces and workplaces with heavy workloads fared worse. At the same time, public expenditure on the health care system was reduced.
We hope that our results encourage further studies in the field and that they will be taken into account when dealing with prevention and rehabilitation initiatives.
Few studies have examined the impact of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on adult ADHD functional outcomes. To address this issue dimensionally, ADHD symptoms in childhood and adulthood and their relation to educational deficits and work disability are studied in a clinical sample of adult patients with previously untreated ADHD. About 250 adults diagnosed systematically with ADHD according to DSM-IV were prospectively recruited. Primary outcomes were high school dropout and being out of the work last year. Childhood ADHD symptoms, sex differences, comorbidities of other mental disorders, and adult ADHD symptoms were examined by historical data, clinician interviews, and questionnaires. High levels of ADHD symptom severity in childhood were related to dropping out of high school [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0], as were higher numbers of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms in childhood. Significantly, more women than men were long-term work disabled (OR = 2.0). After adjusting for age and gender, persisting high levels of ADHD inattention symptoms in adulthood (OR = 2.5), number of comorbid disorders, and particularly anxiety disorders were significantly related to long-term work disability. Childhood hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and overall severity of childhood ADHD symptoms were associated with high school dropout rates; however, persisting ADHD inattention symptoms and comorbid mental disorders in adulthood were more correlated to occupational impairment. These findings underline proposals for studies on early recognition and interventions for ADHD and psychiatric comorbidity. They further suggest that inattentive symptoms be a focus of adult ADHD treatment and that workplace interventions be considered to prevent long-term work disability.