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114 records – page 1 of 12.

Abortion, breast cancer, and epidemiology.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature22237
Source
N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 9;336(2):127-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-9-1997

Access to primary health care and health outcomes: the relationships between GP characteristics and mortality rates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature82292
Source
J Health Econ. 2006 Nov;25(6):1139-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2006
Author
Aakvik Arild
Holmås Tor Helge
Author Affiliation
Department of Economics, University of Bergen, Herman Fossg. 6, N-5007 Bergen, Norway. arild.aakvik@econ.uib.no
Source
J Health Econ. 2006 Nov;25(6):1139-53
Date
Nov-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Empirical Research
Female
Health Services Accessibility
Humans
Male
Mortality - trends
Norway
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Physicians, Family
Primary Health Care
Abstract
This paper analyses the impact of economic conditions and access to primary health care on health outcomes in Norway. Total mortality rates, grouped into four causes of death, were used as proxies for health, and the number of general practitioners (GPs) at the municipality level was used as the proxy for access to primary health care. Dynamic panel data models that allow for time persistence in mortality rates, incorporate municipal fixed effects, and treat both the number and types of GPs in a district as endogenous were estimated using municipality data from 1986 to 2001. We reject the significant relationship between mortality and the number of GPs per capita found in most previous studies. However, there is a significant effect of the composition of GPs, where an increase in the number of contracted GPs reduces mortality rates when compared with GPs employed directly by the municipality.
PubMed ID
16675052 View in PubMed
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Acculturation and mental health--Empirical verification of J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29880
Source
Pages 371-376 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Publication Type
Article
Date
2004
  1 document  
Author
Koch, MW
Bjerregaard, P
Curtis, C
Author Affiliation
Section for Research in Greenland, National Institute of Public Health, Copenhagen, Denmark
Source
Pages 371-376 in J. Lepp�¤luoto, ed. Circumpolar Health 2003. Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Nuuk, Greenland, September 10-14, 2003. International Journal of Circumpolar Health. 2004;63(Suppl.2)
Date
2004
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Publication Type
Article
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
Alaska Medical Library
Keywords
Acculturation
Acculturative stress
Denmark
Empirical Research
Greenlanders
Humans
Logistic Models
Mental health
Models, Psychological
Stress, Psychological
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Many studies concerning mental health among ethnic minorities have used the concept of acculturation as a model of explanation, in particular J.W. Berry's model of acculturative stress. But Berry's theory has only been empirically verified few times. The aims of the study were to examine whether Berry's hypothesis about the connection between acculturation and mental health can be empirically verified for Greenlanders living in Denmark and to analyse whether acculturation plays a significant role for mental health among Greenlanders living in Denmark. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The study used data from the 1999 Health Profile for Greenlanders in Denmark. As measure of mental health we applied the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Acculturation was assessed from answers to questions about how the respondents value the fact that children maintain their traditional cultural identity as Greenlander and how well the respondents speak Greenlandic and Danish. The statistical methods included binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no connection between Berry's definition of acculturation and mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark. On the other hand, our findings showed a significant relation between mental health and gender, age, marital position, occupation and long-term illness. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that acculturation in the way Berry defines it plays a lesser role for mental health among Greenlanders in Denmark than socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Therefore we cannot empirically verify Berry's hypothesis.
PubMed ID
15736688 View in PubMed
Documents
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Alcohol use and social interactions among adolescents in Sweden: do peer effects exist within and/or between the majority population and immigrants?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97679
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2010 Jun;70(11):1858-64
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2010
Author
Mikael Svensson
Author Affiliation
Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden. mikael.svensson@oru.se
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2010 Jun;70(11):1858-64
Date
Jun-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Adolescent Psychology
Alcohol Drinking - epidemiology - ethnology
Emigrants and Immigrants - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Empirical Research
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Logistic Models
Male
Multilevel Analysis
Peer Group
Schools
Social Environment
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Are adolescents who attend schools with a high level of alcohol use and binge drinking more likely to use alcohol and binge drink themselves? This paper analyzes peer effects in adolescent drinking based on a survey of 13,070 adolescents conducted in Sweden in 2005. The empirical analysis uses a multi-level logistic model to account for non-observable heterogeneity between the schools and the results show that attending a school with a high level of alcohol use and frequent binge drinking is a strong predictor of alcohol use and binge drinking for the individual. Hardly any significant interaction effects are detected, implying that peer influence is similar across different adolescent sub-groups. Looking at adolescents with different ethnic backgrounds, it is found that the drinking-pattern of the Swedish majority population has a significant effect on drinking by Swedish individuals and immigrants from Nordic and European countries, but no effect on drinking by immigrants from non-European countries.
PubMed ID
20236746 View in PubMed
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Ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' knowledge with internet-based education.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature125471
Source
Methods Inf Med. 2012;51(4):295-300
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Katja Heikkinen
H. Leino-Kilpi
S. Salanterä
Author Affiliation
Department of Nursing Science, University of Turku, Vanhalinna, Finland. katja.heikkinen@utu.fi
Source
Methods Inf Med. 2012;51(4):295-300
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Ambulatory Care - methods
Chi-Square Distribution
Educational Measurement - methods
Educational Status
Empirical Research
Finland
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Information Dissemination - methods
Internet
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Educational
Orthopedics - methods
Patient Education as Topic
Statistics as Topic
Young Adult
Abstract
There is a growing need for patient education and an evaluation of its outcomes.
The aim of this study was to compare ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' knowledge with Internet-based education and face-to-face education with a nurse. The following hypothesis was proposed: Internet-based patient education (experiment) is as effective as face-to-face education with a nurse (control) in increasing patients' level of knowledge and sufficiency of knowledge. In addition, the correlations of demographic variables were tested.
The patients were randomized to either an experiment group (n = 72) or a control group (n = 75). Empirical data were collected with two instruments.
Patients in both groups showed improvement in their knowledge during their care. Patients in the experiment group improved their knowledge level significantly more in total than those patients in the control group. There were no differences in patients' sufficiency of knowledge between the groups. Knowledge was correlated especially with patients' age, gender and earlier ambulatory surgeries.
As a conclusion, positive results concerning patients' knowledge could be achieved with the Internet-based education. The Internet is a viable method in ambulatory care.
PubMed ID
22476362 View in PubMed
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American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature288399
Publication Type
Journal
  1 website  
Author Affiliation
University of Colorado
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Publication Type
Journal
Digital File Format
Web site (.html, .htm)
Keywords
Publications
Online Journals & Newsletters
Indians
North American
Alaska Natives
Empirical Research
Medicine
Health Status
Abstract
Professionally refereed scientific journal containing empirical research, program evaluations, case studies, unpublished dissertations, and other articles in the behavioral, social, and health sciences that clearly relate to the mental health status of American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Online Resources
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Analysis of multiple exposures: an empirical comparison of results from conventional and semi-bayes modeling strategies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146685
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Jan;21(1):144-51
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2010
Author
Franco Momoli
Michal Abrahamowicz
Marie-Elise Parent
Dan Krewski
Jack Siemiatycki
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 Jan;21(1):144-51
Date
Jan-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Bayes Theorem
Empirical Research
Environmental Exposure
Epidemiology - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Occupational Exposure
Odds Ratio
Quebec - epidemiology
Abstract
Analysts of epidemiologic data often contend with the problem of estimating the independent effects of many correlated exposures. General approaches include assessing each exposure separately, adjusting for some subset of other exposures, or assessing all exposures simultaneously in a single model such as semi-Bayes modeling. The optimal strategy remains uncertain, and it is unclear to what extent different reasonable approaches influence findings. We provide an empirical comparison of results from several modeling strategies.
In an occupational case-control study of lung cancer with 184 exposure substances, we implemented 6 modeling strategies to estimate odds ratios for each exposure-cancer association. These included one-exposure-at-a-time models with various confounder selection criteria (such as a priori selection or a change-in-the-estimate criterion) and semi-Bayes models, one version of which integrated information on previous evidence and chemical properties.
While distributions of odds ratios were broadly similar across the 6 analytic strategies, there were some differences in point estimates and in substances manifesting statistically significant odds ratios, particularly between strategies with few or no occupational covariates and those with many. Semi-Bayes models produced fewer statistically significant odds ratios than other methods. A simple semi-Bayes model that shrank all the 184 estimates to a common mean yielded nearly identical results to one that integrated considerable prior information.
Different modeling strategies can lead to different results. Considering the conceptual and pragmatic difficulties of identifying confounders, these results suggest that it would be unwise to place uncritical reliance on any single strategy.
PubMed ID
20010218 View in PubMed
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Source
J Health Econ. 2011 Mar;30(2):277-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2011
Author
Simen Markussen
Knut Røed
Ole J Røgeberg
Simen Gaure
Author Affiliation
Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, 0349 Oslo, Norway.
Source
J Health Econ. 2011 Mar;30(2):277-92
Date
Mar-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Empirical Research
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Female
General Practitioners - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Insurance Benefits
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Proportional Hazards Models
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
Based on comprehensive administrative register data from Norway, we examine the determinants of sickness absence behavior; in terms of employee characteristics, workplace characteristics, panel doctor characteristics, and economic conditions. The analysis is based on a novel concept of a worker's steady state sickness absence propensity, computed from a multivariate hazard rate model designed to predict the incidence and duration of sickness absence for all workers. Key conclusions are that (i) most of the cross-sectional variation in absenteeism is caused by genuine employee heterogeneity; (ii) the identity of a person's panel doctor has a significant impact on absence propensity; (iii) sickness absence insurance is frequently certified for reasons other than sickness; and (iv) the recovery rate rises enormously just prior to the exhaustion of sickness insurance benefits.
PubMed ID
21247647 View in PubMed
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An empirical comparison of methods for analyzing correlated data from a discrete choice survey to elicit patient preference for colorectal cancer screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126860
Source
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012;12:15
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Ji Cheng
Eleanor Pullenayegum
Deborah A Marshall
John K Marshall
Lehana Thabane
Author Affiliation
Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Source
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2012;12:15
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Choice Behavior
Cluster analysis
Colorectal Neoplasms - diagnosis - psychology
Decision Support Techniques
Empirical Research
Female
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Patient Preference - statistics & numerical data
Questionnaires
Research Design
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is a preference survey which asks participants to make a choice among product portfolios comparing the key product characteristics by performing several choice tasks. Analyzing DCE data needs to account for within-participant correlation because choices from the same participant are likely to be similar. In this study, we empirically compared some commonly-used statistical methods for analyzing DCE data while accounting for within-participant correlation based on a survey of patient preference for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests conducted in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in 2002.
A two-stage DCE design was used to investigate the impact of six attributes on participants' preferences for CRC screening test and willingness to undertake the test. We compared six models for clustered binary outcomes (logistic and probit regressions using cluster-robust standard error (SE), random-effects and generalized estimating equation approaches) and three models for clustered nominal outcomes (multinomial logistic and probit regressions with cluster-robust SE and random-effects multinomial logistic model). We also fitted a bivariate probit model with cluster-robust SE treating the choices from two stages as two correlated binary outcomes. The rank of relative importance between attributes and the estimates of ß coefficient within attributes were used to assess the model robustness.
In total 468 participants with each completing 10 choices were analyzed. Similar results were reported for the rank of relative importance and ß coefficients across models for stage-one data on evaluating participants' preferences for the test. The six attributes ranked from high to low as follows: cost, specificity, process, sensitivity, preparation and pain. However, the results differed across models for stage-two data on evaluating participants' willingness to undertake the tests. Little within-patient correlation (ICC ˜ 0) was found in stage-one data, but substantial within-patient correlation existed (ICC = 0.659) in stage-two data.
When small clustering effect presented in DCE data, results remained robust across statistical models. However, results varied when larger clustering effect presented. Therefore, it is important to assess the robustness of the estimates via sensitivity analysis using different models for analyzing clustered data from DCE studies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22348526 View in PubMed
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An empirical evaluation of period survival analysis using data from the Canadian Cancer Registry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature173345
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2006 Mar;16(3):191-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2006
Author
Larry F Ellison
Author Affiliation
Health Statistics Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ont., Canada. larry.ellison@statcan.ca
Source
Ann Epidemiol. 2006 Mar;16(3):191-6
Date
Mar-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Canada - epidemiology
Empirical Research
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Prognosis
Prostatic Neoplasms - epidemiology - mortality
Registries
Survival Analysis
Abstract
To provide an empirical evaluation of the performance of period analysis in comparison to traditional methods of survival analysis for predicting future 5-year cancer survival using data from the Canadian Cancer Registry.
5-year relative survival estimates were derived by period and traditional methods of analysis using data available at the conclusion of 1997. The extent to which these estimates agreed with survival later observed for cancer cases diagnosed in 1997 was quantified by calculating the squared difference of the estimate to the corresponding relative survival ratio actually observed.
Period analysis was observed to be superior to, or comparable with, cohort analysis in predicting the average 5-year relative survival observed later for virtually all individual cancer sites studied. The improvement in survival estimation was most pronounced for prostate cancer. Where period estimates did not match the eventually observed value, they were predominantly on the lower side. Complete analysis estimates were generally observed to be in between the cohort and period values.
The period method of survival analysis provides more up-to-date estimates of 5-year survival than do traditional cohort-based methods.
PubMed ID
16099673 View in PubMed
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114 records – page 1 of 12.