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12th International Congress of Human Genetics. Life on the fertile frontier.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129901
Source
Science. 2011 Nov 4;334(6056):582
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Article
Date
Nov-4-2011

The age pattern of fecundability: an analysis of French Canadian and Hutterite birth histories.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature193504
Source
Soc Biol. 2000 Spring-Summer;47(1-2):34-50
Publication Type
Article
Author
U. Larsen
S. Yan
Author Affiliation
Department of Population and International Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Source
Soc Biol. 2000 Spring-Summer;47(1-2):34-50
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Distribution
Amenorrhea - history
Birth Intervals
Birth rate
Canada - epidemiology
Christianity - history
Emigration and Immigration - history
Female
Fertility
France - ethnology
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, Ancient
Humans
Infertility - ethnology - history
Linear Models
Marriage - history
Middle Aged
Proportional Hazards Models
Registries
Time Factors
Abstract
This paper analyzes the age pattern of effective fecundability from populations with no evidence of deliberate fertility control using a new convolution model of fecundability. The analysis is based on a sample of Hutterite birth histories from the mid-20th century, and birth histories of French Canadians from the 17th and 18th centuries. The main findings are as follows: 1) the level of effective fecundability is higher among the French Canadians compared to the Hutterites; 2) effective fecundability peaks at age 20 for the Hutterites, and in the early to mid-20s for the French Canadians; 3) Hutterite effective fecundability declines almost linearly from age 20 to 45, and French Canadian effective fecundability declines slowly from its peak to the early 30s, and more rapidly at older ages; and 4) the duration of postpartum amenorrhea is longer for the French Canadians than for the Hutterites. Because of the shorter periods of postpartum amenorrhea the Hutterites have about the same average number of children as the French Canadians, even though the French Canadians have higher effective fecundability.
PubMed ID
11521455 View in PubMed
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Alu insertion polymorphisms in Native Americans and related Asian populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature169340
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Mar-Apr;33(2):142-60
Publication Type
Article
Author
Jaqueline Battilana
Nelson J R Fagundes
Ana H Heller
Angela Goldani
Loreta B Freitas
Eduardo Tarazona-Santos
Batmunkh Munkhbat
Namid Munkhtuvshin
Mlu Krylov
Lidia Benevolenskaia
Frank C Arnett
Mark A Batzer
Prescott L Deininger
Francisco M Salzano
Sandro L Bonatto
Author Affiliation
Centro de Biologia Genômica e Molecular, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Biociências, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Source
Ann Hum Biol. 2006 Mar-Apr;33(2):142-60
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alu Elements - genetics
Asian Continental Ancestry Group - genetics
Emigration and Immigration - history
Ethnic Groups - genetics
Female
Gene Frequency
Genetic markers
Genetics, Population
Heterozygote
History, Ancient
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Indians, South American - genetics
Male
Mutagenesis, Insertional
Polymorphism, Genetic
Principal Component Analysis
Siberia - ethnology
Abstract
Alu insertions provide useful markers for the study of inter-population affinities and historical processes, but data on these systems are not numerous in Native Americans and related populations.
The study aimed to answer the following questions: (a) do the population relationships found agree with ethnic, historical and geographical data? and (b) what can heterozygote levels and associated results inform us about the events that led to the colonization of the New World?
Twelve Alu insertion polymorphisms were studied in 330 individuals belonging to South American Native, Siberian and Mongolian populations. These data were integrated with those from 526 persons, to ascertain the relationships between Asian, Northern Arctic and Amerindian populations.
A decreasing trend concerning heterozygosities and amount of gene flow was observed in the three sets, in the order indicated above. Most results indicated the validity of these subdivisions. However, no clear structure could be observed within South American Natives, indicating the importance of dispersive (genetic drift, founder effects) factors in their differentiation.
The answers to the questions are: (a) yes; and (b) an initial moderate bottleneck, intensified by more recent historical events (isolation and inbreeding), can explain the current Amerindian pattern of diversity.
PubMed ID
16684689 View in PubMed
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American Indian prehistory as written in the mitochondrial DNA: a review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature223740
Source
Hum Biol. 1992 Jun;64(3):403-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1992
Author
D C Wallace
A. Torroni
Author Affiliation
Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
Source
Hum Biol. 1992 Jun;64(3):403-16
Date
Jun-1992
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asia - ethnology
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Emigration and Immigration - history
Genetic Markers - genetics
Genetic Variation
Haplotypes - genetics
History, Ancient
Humans
Indians, Central American - genetics - history
Indians, North American - genetics - history
Indians, South American - genetics - history
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
Abstract
Native Americans have been divided into three linguistic groups: the reasonably well-defined Eskaleut and Nadene of northern North America and the highly heterogeneous Amerind of North, Central, and South America. The heterogeneity of the Amerinds has been proposed to be the result of either multiple independent migrations or a single ancient migration with extensive in situ radiation. To investigate the origin and interrelationship of the American Indians, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 87 Amerinds (Pima, Maya, and Ticuna of North, Central, and South America, respectively), 80 Nadene (Dogrib and Tlingit of northwest North America and Navajo of the southwest North America), and 153 Asians from 7 diverse populations. American Indian mtDNAs were found to be directly descended from five founding Asian mtDNAs and to cluster into four lineages, each characterized by a different rare Asian mtDNA marker. Lineage A is defined by a HaeIII site gain at np 663, lineage B by a 9-bp deletion between the COII and tRNA(Lys) genes, lineage C by a HincII site loss at np 13259, and lineage D by an AluI site loss at np 5176. The North, Central, and South America Amerinds were found to harbor all four lineages, demonstrating that the Amerinds originated from a common ancestral genetic stock. The genetic variation of three of the four Amerind lineages (A, C, and D) was similar with a mean value of 0.084%, whereas the sequence variation in the fourth lineage (B) was much lower, raising the possibility of an independent arrival. By contrast, the Nadene mtDNAs were predominantly from lineage A, with 27% of them having a Nadene-specific RsaI site loss at np 16329. The accumulated Nadene variation was only 0.021%. These results demonstrate that the Amerind mtDNAs arose from one or maybe two Asian migrations that were distinct from the migration of the Nadene and that the Amerind populations are about four times older than the Nadene.
Notes
Comment In: Hum Biol. 1992 Jun;64(3):271-91607180
PubMed ID
1351474 View in PubMed
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Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148346
Source
Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):1758-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-3-2009
Author
Helena Malmström
M Thomas P Gilbert
Mark G Thomas
Mikael Brandström
Jan Storå
Petra Molnar
Pernille K Andersen
Christian Bendixen
Gunilla Holmlund
Anders Götherström
Eske Willerslev
Author Affiliation
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Source
Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):1758-62
Date
Nov-3-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture - history
Anthropology, Physical
DNA, Mitochondrial - chemistry
Emigration and Immigration - history
Genetic Variation
History, Ancient
Humans
Scandinavia
Abstract
The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7, 8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern Scandinavians (including the Saami people of northern Scandinavia) but are more closely related to contemporary populations of the eastern Baltic region. Our findings support hypotheses arising from archaeological analyses that propose a Neolithic or post-Neolithic population replacement in Scandinavia [7]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations.
Notes
Comment In: Curr Biol. 2009 Nov 3;19(20):R948-919889371
PubMed ID
19781941 View in PubMed
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Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98088
Source
Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):757-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-11-2010
Author
Morten Rasmussen
Yingrui Li
Stinus Lindgreen
Jakob Skou Pedersen
Anders Albrechtsen
Ida Moltke
Mait Metspalu
Ene Metspalu
Toomas Kivisild
Ramneek Gupta
Marcelo Bertalan
Kasper Nielsen
M Thomas P Gilbert
Yong Wang
Maanasa Raghavan
Paula F Campos
Hanne Munkholm Kamp
Andrew S Wilson
Andrew Gledhill
Silvana Tridico
Michael Bunce
Eline D Lorenzen
Jonas Binladen
Xiaosen Guo
Jing Zhao
Xiuqing Zhang
Hao Zhang
Zhuo Li
Minfeng Chen
Ludovic Orlando
Karsten Kristiansen
Mads Bak
Niels Tommerup
Christian Bendixen
Tracey L Pierre
Bjarne Grønnow
Morten Meldgaard
Claus Andreasen
Sardana A Fedorova
Ludmila P Osipova
Thomas F G Higham
Christopher Bronk Ramsey
Thomas V O Hansen
Finn C Nielsen
Michael H Crawford
Søren Brunak
Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén
Richard Villems
Rasmus Nielsen
Anders Krogh
Jun Wang
Eske Willerslev
Author Affiliation
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Source
Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):757-62
Date
Feb-11-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Russia
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cryopreservation
Emigration and Immigration - history
Extinction, Biological
Genetics, Population
Genome, Human - genetics
Genomics
Genotype
Greenland
Hair
History, Ancient
Humans
Inuits - genetics
Male
Phenotype
Phylogeny
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide - genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Siberia - ethnology
Abstract
We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from approximately 4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20x, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
Notes
RefSource: Nature. 2010 Feb 11;463(7282):739-40
PubMed ID
20148029 View in PubMed
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The archaeology of Ushki Lake, Kamchatka, and the Pleistocene peopling of the Americas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature184327
Source
Science. 2003 Jul 25;301(5632):501-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-25-2003
Author
Ted Goebel
Michael R Waters
Margarita Dikova
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology/096, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557, USA. goebel@unr.edu
Source
Science. 2003 Jul 25;301(5632):501-5
Date
Jul-25-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Animals
Anthropology
Archaeology
Asia
Carbon Radioisotopes
Charcoal - history
Emigration and Immigration - history
Geologic sediments
History, Ancient
Humans
North America
Population Dynamics
Siberia
Abstract
The Ushki Paleolithic sites of Kamchatka, Russia, have long been thought to contain information critical to the peopling of the Americas, especially the origins of Clovis. New radiocarbon dates indicate that human occupation of Ushki began only 13,000 calendar years ago-nearly 4000 years later than previously thought. Although biface industries were widespread across Beringia contemporaneous to the time of Clovis in western North America, these data suggest that late-glacial Siberians did not spread into Beringia until the end of the Pleistocene, perhaps too recently to have been ancestral to proposed pre-Clovis populations in the Americas.
Notes
Comment In: Science. 2003 Jul 25;301(5632):450-112881541
PubMed ID
12881567 View in PubMed
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Between Lake Baikal and the Baltic Sea: genomic history of the gateway to Europe.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296915
Source
BMC Genet. 2017 12 28; 18(Suppl 1):110
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
12-28-2017
Author
Petr Triska
Nikolay Chekanov
Vadim Stepanov
Elza K Khusnutdinova
Ganesh Prasad Arun Kumar
Vita Akhmetova
Konstantin Babalyan
Eugenia Boulygina
Vladimir Kharkov
Marina Gubina
Irina Khidiyatova
Irina Khitrinskaya
Ekaterina E Khrameeva
Rita Khusainova
Natalia Konovalova
Sergey Litvinov
Andrey Marusin
Alexandr M Mazur
Valery Puzyrev
Dinara Ivanoshchuk
Maria Spiridonova
Anton Teslyuk
Svetlana Tsygankova
Martin Triska
Natalya Trofimova
Edward Vajda
Oleg Balanovsky
Ancha Baranova
Konstantin Skryabin
Tatiana V Tatarinova
Egor Prokhortchouk
Author Affiliation
Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Source
BMC Genet. 2017 12 28; 18(Suppl 1):110
Date
12-28-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Algorithms
Asia
DNA
Datasets as Topic
Emigration and Immigration - history
Ethnic Groups - genetics
Europe
Female
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population
Genotyping Techniques
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Male
Russia
Abstract
The history of human populations occupying the plains and mountain ridges separating Europe from Asia has been eventful, as these natural obstacles were crossed westward by multiple waves of Turkic and Uralic-speaking migrants as well as eastward by Europeans. Unfortunately, the material records of history of this region are not dense enough to reconstruct details of population history. These considerations stimulate growing interest to obtain a genetic picture of the demographic history of migrations and admixture in Northern Eurasia.
We genotyped and analyzed 1076 individuals from 30 populations with geographical coverage spanning from Baltic Sea to Baikal Lake. Our dense sampling allowed us to describe in detail the population structure, provide insight into genomic history of numerous European and Asian populations, and significantly increase quantity of genetic data available for modern populations in region of North Eurasia. Our study doubles the amount of genome-wide profiles available for this region. We detected unusually high amount of shared identical-by-descent (IBD) genomic segments between several Siberian populations, such as Khanty and Ket, providing evidence of genetic relatedness across vast geographic distances and between speakers of different language families. Additionally, we observed excessive IBD sharing between Khanty and Bashkir, a group of Turkic speakers from Southern Urals region. While adding some weight to the "Finno-Ugric" origin of Bashkir, our studies highlighted that the Bashkir genepool lacks the main "core", being a multi-layered amalgamation of Turkic, Ugric, Finnish and Indo-European contributions, which points at intricacy of genetic interface between Turkic and Uralic populations. Comparison of the genetic structure of Siberian ethnicities and the geography of the region they inhabit point at existence of the "Great Siberian Vortex" directing genetic exchanges in populations across the Siberian part of Asia. Slavic speakers of Eastern Europe are, in general, very similar in their genetic composition. Ukrainians, Belarusians and Russians have almost identical proportions of Caucasus and Northern European components and have virtually no Asian influence. We capitalized on wide geographic span of our sampling to address intriguing question about the place of origin of Russian Starovers, an enigmatic Eastern Orthodox Old Believers religious group relocated to Siberia in seventeenth century. A comparative reAdmix analysis, complemented by IBD sharing, placed their roots in the region of the Northern European Plain, occupied by North Russians and Finno-Ugric Komi and Karelian people. Russians from Novosibirsk and Russian Starover exhibit ancestral proportions close to that of European Eastern Slavs, however, they also include between five to 10 % of Central Siberian ancestry, not present at this level in their European counterparts.
Our project has patched the hole in the genetic map of Eurasia: we demonstrated complexity of genetic structure of Northern Eurasians, existence of East-West and North-South genetic gradients, and assessed different inputs of ancient populations into modern populations.
PubMed ID
29297395 View in PubMed
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Blood groups, serum proteins, and red cell enzymes in the Nganasans (Tavghi)-reindeer hunters from Taimir Peninsula.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature244173
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1981 Oct;56(2):139-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1981
Author
T M Karaphet
R I Sukernik
L P Osipova
Y B Simchenko
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 1981 Oct;56(2):139-45
Date
Oct-1981
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alleles
Blood Group Antigens - genetics
Blood Proteins - genetics
Emigration and Immigration - history
Erythrocytes - enzymology
Ethnic Groups
Gene Frequency
Genetic markers
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Phenotype
Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases - genetics
Siberia
Abstract
The Nganasans are made up of two recently tribal populations. These, the Avam and Vadey, were established in the seventeenth century from small reindeer hunting bands, themselves apparently descended from the Yukaghir. Data on 13 blood systems have been described for the first time in the Vadey Nganasans, and the results compared with those previously reported for the two Avam subgroups. As a whole, the Nganasans are characterized by low frequency of B blood group, high frequencies of Ns, cDE, Fy(a), Hp(2), absence of A2, P(c), K, and apparently an absence of cde alleles or haplotypes. Measurement of intrapopulation heterogeneity reveals significant divergence among the two Avam subdivisions (chi 2/16=57.59; P less than 0.001), as well as between the total Avam and Vadey (chi 2/17=79.31; P less than 0.001). Founder principle, and local genetic drift, are believed to account for the greater difference between the Avam and Vadey subgroups than that observed between the two Avam populations. The Nganasans of the Taimir Peninsula appear to be the last group of reindeer hunters remaining in Northern Siberia. For ages they have lived in relative isolation, and therefore are the least touched genetically, either by surrounding herding groups originating in Southern Siberia, or by recent Caucasian admixture.
PubMed ID
6275711 View in PubMed
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100 records – page 1 of 10.