A National Asthma Programme was undertaken in Finland from 1994 to 2004 to improve asthma care and prevent an increase in costs. The main goal was to lessen the burden of asthma to individuals and society.
The action programme focused on implementation of new knowledge, especially for primary care. The main premise underpinning the campaign was that asthma is an inflammatory disease and requires anti-inflammatory treatment from the outset. The key for implementation was an effective network of asthma-responsible professionals and development of a post hoc evaluation strategy. In 1997 Finnish pharmacies were included in the Pharmacy Programme and in 2002 a Childhood Asthma mini-Programme was launched.
The incidence of asthma is still increasing, but the burden of asthma has decreased considerably. The number of hospital days has fallen by 54% from 110 000 in 1993 to 51 000 in 2003, 69% in relation to the number of asthmatics (n = 135 363 and 207 757, respectively), with the trend still downwards. In 1993, 7212 patients of working age (9% of 80 133 asthmatics) received a disability pension from the Social Insurance Institution compared with 1741 in 2003 (1.5% of 116 067 asthmatics). The absolute decrease was 76%, and 83% in relation to the number of asthmatics. The increase in the cost of asthma (compensation for disability, drugs, hospital care, and outpatient doctor visits) ended: in 1993 the costs were 218 million euro which had fallen to 213.5 million euro in 2003. Costs per patient per year have decreased 36% (from 1611 euro to 1031 euro).
It is possible to reduce the morbidity of asthma and its impact on individuals as well as on society. Improvements would have taken place without the programme, but not of this magnitude.
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Acute care surgery (ACS) services are becoming increasingly popular.
Assessment, flow, and disposition of adult ACS patients (acute, nontrauma surgical conditions) through the emergency department (ED) in a large health care system (Calgary) were prospectively analyzed.
Among 447 ACS ED consultations over 3 centers (70% admitted to ACS), the median wait time from the consultation request to ACS arrival was 36 minutes, and from ACS arrival to the admission request it was 91 minutes. The total ACS-dependent time was 127 minutes compared with 261 minutes for initial ED activities and 104 minutes for transfer to a hospital ward (P
To assess the availability of obstetric institutions, the risk of unplanned delivery outside an institution and maternal morbidity in a national setting in which the number of institutions declined from 95 to 51 during 30 years.
Retrospective population-based, three cohorts and two cross-sectional analyses.
Census data, Statistics Norway. The Medical Birth Registry of Norway from 1979 to 2009.
Women (15-49 years), 2000 (n = 1,050,269) and 2010 (n = 1,127,665). Women who delivered during the period 1979-2009 (n = 1,807,714).
Geographic Information Systems software for travel zone calculations. Cross-table and multiple logistic regression analysis of change over time and regional differences. World Health Organization Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmOC) indicators.
Proportion of women living outside the 1-hour travel zone to obstetric institutions. Risk of unplanned delivery outside obstetric institutions. Maternal morbidity.
The proportion of women living outside the 1-hour zone for all obstetric institutions increased from 7.9% to 8.8% from 2000 to 2010 (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.12), and for emergency obstetric care from 11.0% to 12.1% (relative risk, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.11). The risk of unplanned delivery outside institutions increased from 0.4% in 1979-83 to 0.7% in 2004-09 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-2.2). Maternal morbidity increased from 1.7% in 2000 to 2.2% in 2009 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.5) and the regional differences increased.
The availability of and access to obstetric institutions was reduced and we did not observe the expected decrease in maternal morbidity following the centralisation.
The objective of the study was to assess risk factors for moderate and severe blood loss after cesarean delivery (CD).
All planned (n = 32,716) and emergency (n = 47,942) cesareans, as reported over a 10-year period to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, were analyzed separately in a case-control design. Women with moderate (500 to =1500 mL) or severe (>1500 mL) blood loss were analyzed with women with blood loss less than 500 mL as controls in SPSS (version 17.0) with ?(2) test and logistic regression.
The prevalence of severe blood loss was consistently higher in emergency (3.2%) than planned CD (1.9%). Planned and emergency CDs share common risk factors for both moderate and severe blood loss, whereas emergency CD carries in addition delivery-related risk factors.
When revising management schemes for CD, anesthetic procedures should be reconsidered as surgical competence in cases with placenta previa, placental abruption, and low hemoglobin.
Colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) have been inconsistently reported. We assessed temporal trends of colectomy rates for UC, stratified by emergent vs. elective colectomy indication.
From 1997 to 2009, we identified adults hospitalized for a flare of UC. Medical charts were reviewed. Temporal changes were evaluated using linear regression models to estimate the average annual percent change (AAPC) in surgical rates. Logistic regression analysis compared: (i) UC patients responding to medical management in hospital to those who underwent colectomy; (ii) UC patients who underwent an emergent vs. elective colectomy; and (iii) temporal trends of drug utilization.
From 1997 to 2009, colectomy rates significantly dropped for elective colectomies with an AAPC of -7.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): -10.8%, -3.9%). The rate of emergent colectomies remained stable with an AAPC of -1.4% (95% CI: -4.8%, 2.0%). Azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine prescriptions increased from 1997 to 2009 (odds ratio (OR)=1.15; 95% CI: 1.09-1.22) and infliximab use increased after 2005 (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.25-2.26). A 13% per year risk adjusted reduction in the odds of colectomy (OR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.92) was observed in UC patients responding to medical management compared with those who required colectomy. Emergent colectomy patients had a shorter duration of flare (
OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal complications of elective cesarean delivery for breech at term with those after vaginal or emergency cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 15441 primiparas who delivered singleton breech at term. Information was obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Register of Death Causes, and the Denmark Patient Register. RESULTS: Elective cesarean delivery was associated with lower rates of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (relative risk [RR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70, 0.92), hemorrhage and anemia (RR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84, 0.97), and operations for wound infection (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.57, 0.83) than emergency cesarean delivery. There was a higher rate of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (RR 1.20; 95% CI 1.11, 1.25) than for vaginal delivery. Thromboembolic disease occurred in 0.1% of women with cesarean delivery, and anal sphincter rupture occurred in 1.7% of women with vaginal delivery. Elective cesarean delivery was not associated with subsequent ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, placental complications, uterine rupture, or adverse neonatal outcome. Women with elective cesarean delivery were more often delivered by elective cesarean in their second pregnancy, compared with women delivered vaginally (RR 1.25; 95% CI 1.21, 1.29). Elective cesarean delivery was associated with a lower rate of a subsequent delivery during the study period and a longer mean delivery interval than for vaginal delivery. CONCLUSION: Elective cesarean delivery for term breech carries a low risk of severe maternal complications.
Interventional radiologists, cardiologists, and vascular surgeons are capable of performing endovascular procedures successfully in their respective environments. Suboptimal anatomy or intraoperative technical problems can be encountered, and endovascular management alone is not always suitable. The objectives of this study were to define the incidence of adjunctive surgical techniques, to discuss the rationale for endovascular reconstruction in a well-developed surgical environment, and to assess the effect of experience on the incidence of adjunctive repair.
All primary aortic and aortoiliac elective, urgent, and emergent endovascular procedures performed at the Peter Lougheed Center and entered into a prospective database from May 25, 1999 to June 01, 2005, were reviewed. All adjunctive surgical techniques to enable stent deployment, enhance attachment site, or solve intraoperative difficulties were captured. The study period was divided into two time periods based on learning curve data to assess the effect of experience on the rate of adjunctive repairs.
Four hundred thirty-eight patients underwent elective (80%), urgent (15%), or emergent (5%) endovascular procedures during the study period. These consisted of 101 thoracic and 337 abdominal operations, including the use of 13 fenestrated stents. One hundred thirty-nine patients (31.7%) required 180 open surgical procedures. Complete data were available for the entire patient cohort. The mean follow-up was 793.2 days (SD, 519.1 days). Procedures were necessary for vascular access, arterial dissection/rupture, limb ischemia, and enhancement/elongation of the stent attachment site. The persistent endoleak rate was 5.3%, the late rupture rate was 0.7%, the conversion rate was 1.6%, the 30-day surgical mortality rate was 3.2%, all-cause mortality to date is 7.3%, and the reintervention rate was 4.6%. There was no statistically significant effect of the learning curve on the incidence of surgical adjunctive procedures in either the thoracic group (11/26 [42.3%] for phase 1 vs 17/75 [22.6%] for phase 2) or the abdominal group (14/50 [28.0%] for phase 1 vs 97/287 [33.8%] for phase 2). Overall, 31.5% of patients required adjunctive surgical repair.
Successful endografting requires endovascular expertise in addition to a well-developed surgical environment to increase applicability and decrease patient risk. Despite advances in endovascular technology, hybrid techniques will continue to be required to achieve good overall success rates.
To describe the epidemiology of mountain incidents and mountain rescue operations occurring in Banff, Yoho, and Kootenay National Parks between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2006.
Retrospective review of Banff, Yoho, and Kootenay Public Safety Occurrence Reports detailing rescue operations within the study period. Demographics, activity, reason for rescue, mode of rescue, type of injury, and fatalities were analyzed.
A total of 317 emergency mountain rescue operations involving 406 persons was documented. The mean age of the rescued population was 35.2 years, and this population was predominantly male (63.1%). Hikers were involved in 43.5% of incidents, and 'slips and falls' were responsible for 50.2%. Helicopter was the mode of rescue in 64% of cases. Almost half (40.7%) of all rescues involved people with no injuries. The limbs were the most common body part affected (68% of traumatic injuries). Forty fatalities occurred-45% due to avalanches and 27.5% due to slips and falls.
This study offers a synopsis of the rescue service provided by Parks Canada Rescue in the study area. Further work is needed to separate primary and contributory causes of mountain incidents, and this can be achieved by use of better data collection methods. Hospital follow-up is required to accurately assess the morbidity and mortality associated with mountain incidents. Data presented are expected to be of value to a variety of tourism, health, and safety organizations.
This study evaluated the prehospital factors associated with better health-related quality of life for survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
This prospective, 20-community, cohort study involved consecutive, adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients who survived to 1 year. Patients were contacted by telephone and evaluated for the Health Utilities Index Mark III (HUI3), which describes health as a utility score on a scale from 0 (dead) to 1.0 (perfect health). The 8091 cardiac arrest patients had overall survival rates of 5.2% to hospital discharge and 4.0% to 1 year. We successfully contacted and evaluated 268 of 316 (84.8%) of known 1-year survivors. The median HUI3 score was 0.80 (interquartile range, 0.50 to 0.97), which compares well with age-adjusted values for the general population (0.83). Logistic regression identified 2 factors independently associated with very good quality of life (HUI3 >0.90) and their odds ratios (95% CIs), as follows: age 80 years or older, 0.3 (0.1 to 0.84), and citizen-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2.0 (1.2 to 3.4) (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic, 0.74).
This study is the largest ever conducted for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors, clearly shows that these patients have good quality of life, and is the first to demonstrate that citizen-initiated CPR is strongly and independently associated with better quality of life. These results emphasize the importance of optimizing community citizen CPR readiness. Given the low rate of citizen-initiated CPR in many communities, we believe that local and national initiatives should vigorously promote the practice of bystander CPR.