From 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2014, 58 patients sustained gunshot wounds in the city of Gothenburg. 57 were males and the median age was 26 years. The majority of injuries were musculoskeletal. Ten patients died, of these 4 patients suffered single gunshot wounds to the head, while 6 patients had wounds to mediastinal structures and large abdominal vessels. 90 % of patients presented out-of-hours. The total length of stay for the 47 patients admitted was 316 days. Direct health care costs were calculated to 6.2 MSEK.
Major changes in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) management prompted a comprehensive rewriting of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines. The Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) participated in both the writing process and the external review. Subsequently, a Canadian Working Group (CWG), formed under the auspices of the CCS, developed a perspective and adaptation for Canada. Herein, accounting for specific realities of the Canadian cardiovascular health system, is a discussion of the implications for prehospital care and transport, optimal reperfusion therapy and an approach to decision making regarding reperfusion options and invasive therapy following fibrinolytic therapy. Major recent developments regarding indications for implantable cardioverter defibrillator(s) (ICDs) also prompted a review of indications for ICDs and the optimal timing of implantation given the potential for recovery of left ventricular function. At least a 40-day, preferably a 12-week, waiting period was judged to be optimal to evaluate left ventricular function post-STEMI. A recommended algorithm for the insertion of an ICD is provided. Implementation of the new STEMI guidelines has substantial implications for resources, organization and priorities of the Canadian health care system. While on the one hand, the necessary incremental funding to provide tertiary and quaternary care and to support revascularization and device implantation capability is desirable, it is equally or more important to develop enhanced prehospital care, including the capacity for early recognition, risk assessment, fibrinolytic therapy and/or triage to a tertiary care centre as part of an enlightened approach to improving cardiac care.
BACKGROUND: In 2002 the Norwegian Board of Health made a survey of the accessibility of general practitioners in Troms county in North Norway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a telephone interview one secretary in each surgery informed about telephone response time, planned time for telephone consultations, recorded numbers of urgent consultations, and waiting time to obtain a routine consultation. RESULTS: On average, the planned telephone time was two hours per week. Telephone time was in inverse proportion to the number of patients on the doctor's list. Rural doctors spent twice as much time as urban colleagues on the telephone with their patients. Doctors with lists between 500 and 1500 patients had a higher proportion of urgent consultations compared with doctors with shorter or longer lists. INTERPRETATION: Telephone response time below two minutes and waiting times for routine consultations below 20 days appear to be within acceptable norms. When patient lists are above 1500, doctors' capacity to offer telephone contact and emergency services to their patients seems reduced.
The impact of prehospital care after the return of spontaneous circulation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients is not known. This study describes adherence to the resuscitation guidelines, factors associated with poor adherence and possible impact of prehospital postresuscitation care on the outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
One hundred and fifty-seven Finnish out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients hospitalized during 1 year, were analyzed retrospectively. Patient and arrest characteristics, prehospital postresuscitation care and survival to hospital discharge were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.
Forty percent of the patients received care accordant with the guidelines. Male sex (P=0.045), witnessed arrest (P=0.031), initial ventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia rhythm (P=0.007) and the presence of an emergency physician (P=0.017) were associated with care in line with the current guidelines. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age over median (odds ratio=3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.5-8.6), nonventricular fibrillation/ventricular tachycardia initial rhythm (odds ratio=4.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6-9.8), administration of adrenaline (odds ratio=7.0, 95% confidence interval 2.3-21.4) and unsatisfactory prehospital postresuscitation care (odds ratio=2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-6.3) were associated with a failure to survive up to hospital discharge.
Less than 50% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients received prehospital postresuscitation care compatible with the current guidelines. Markers of poor prognosis were associated with unsatisfactory care, which in turn was more frequent among the patients who did not survive to hospital discharge. The importance of the guidelines should be highlighted in the future.
Limited information is available on the effect of age on stroke management and care delivery. Our aim was to determine whether access to stroke care, delivery of health services, and clinical outcomes after stroke are affected by age.
This was a prospective cohort study of patients with acute ischemic stroke in the province of Ontario, Canada, admitted to stroke centers participating in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network between July 1, 2003 and March 31, 2005. Primary outcomes were the following selected indicators of quality stroke care: (1) use of thrombolysis; (2) dysphagia screening; (3) admission to a stroke unit; (4) carotid imaging; (5) antithrombotic therapy; and (6) warfarin for atrial fibrillation at discharge. Secondary outcomes were risk-adjusted stroke fatality, discharge disposition, pneumonia, and length of hospital stay.
Among 3631 patients with ischemic stroke, 1219 (33.6%) were older than 80 years. There were no significant differences in stroke care delivery by age group. Stroke fatality increased with age, with a 30-day risk adjusted fatality of 7.1%, 6.5%, 8.8%, and 14.8% for those aged 59 or younger, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80 years or older, respectively. Those aged older than 80 years had a longer length of hospitalization, increased risk of pneumonia, and higher disability at discharge compared to those younger than 80. This group was also less likely to be discharged home.
In the context of a province-wide coordinated stroke care system, stroke care delivery was similar across all age groups with the exception of slightly lower rates of investigations in the very elderly. Increasing age was associated with stroke severity and stroke case-fatality.
INTRODUCTION: An important factor determining survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is how fast the ambulance personnel can reach the patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a two-year period between 1996 and 1998, all ambulance calls to patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Oslo were evaluated. Of 1,026 cardiac arrests, 130 were excluded because of missing data. RESULTS: The median ambulance response interval was 7.2 min (5.7-9.0 as 25-75% percentiles). There was a tendency to shorter response intervals to the central parts of Oslo with medians between 3 and 4 min, while 14 more peripheral boroughs had median response intervals over 8 min. Of the 627 cases where the ambulance starting point was registered, 76% were from the only ambulance station in Oslo, located downtown. INTERPRETATION: In our opinion, the median ambulance response interval is unsatisfactory in large parts of Oslo, as a long response time gives a dramatically lower survival rate after cardiac arrest. A reorganisation and decentralization of the Oslo Emergency Medical Service System seems necessary.
INTRODUCTION: The aim was to describe ambulance transportation and pre-hospital treatment in connection with admission for suspected acute myocardial infarction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For all patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who were urgently admitted to the Cardiological Department, Odense University Hospital between 3 August 1998 and 6 December 1998, information about ambulance transportation and pre-hospital treatment was collected through interviews with the patients and study of ambulance records, admission notes, and hospital medical records. In addition, details of the regarding response times were obtained from Falck's emergency service and from nurses' papers. RESULTS: Altogether 279 patients (83%) were transported by ambulance. Half the ambulances arrived at the hospital after 34 minutes (range 11-140 minutes), but every third ambulance took more than 40 minutes to reach the hospital. The pre-hospital treatment of all the patients was: oxygen 69%, nitroglycerin sublingually 46%, nitrous oxide 2%, defibrillation 1.4%, acetylsalicylic acid 9%, morphine injection 8%, and ECG monitoring 57%. CONCLUSION: The study showed that there were quality problems, as every third ambulance took more than 40 minutes to reach the hospital. It also showed that acetylsalicylic acid and morphine were used only to a limited extent in a pre-hospital situation.