The article substantiate the necessity to improve the automatization of the information process in the system of medical support in extreme situations and thus to liquidate the disproportion between the medico-diagnostical and information accumulation storage facilities. These facts clearly define the importance of work which is being carried out by Medical Service towards an elaboration of the "Disaster Medicine" automated information retrieval system (AIRS). The data obtained as a result of AIRS processing could be directly used for reference or prediction purposes.
The effective system for the emergency health care in the disaster or calamity situations presupposes a wide application of computer facilities. The article shows the possibilities towards the improvement of medical support with the help of the disaster medicine information dissemination system. The authors give the main functional characteristics of this system which could make it possible to optimize the health care to the wounded and to make a correct distribution of assets.
Mass destructions of the social infrastructure and household systems under stressors in the areas of emergency situations involve marked sanitary-and-epidemiological problems in a region's population, which in turn give rise to the activation of routes of transmission and formation of infectious and parasitic diseases. The most important lines of activities of supervising the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation under emergencies are to timely assess the sanitary-and-epidemiological situation, to predict, to organize, and to correct sanitary-and-antiepidemic measures.
During the summer seasons of 1978-1983 (56 weeks), trial activity with a physician-manned ambulance helicopter was carried out in the County of Stockholm (population 1.5 million). The area includes an extensive archipelago. Within the region there are 11 large general hospitals, three of which are supplied with a helicopter pad. During the trial period 1 246 helicopter missions were undertaken, of which 943 resulted in emergency transportation of the patient (83% by helicopter, 17% by ambulance). The number of missions per day varied from 0-11, with a mean number of 3.2. The turn-out time from receipt of the call to arrival at the scene of the accident or illness was less than 30 minutes in 75% of the cases. Of the emergency calls, 57% involved cases of illness and 43% accidents. Therapeutic intervention by doctors at the scene was considered to have been of vital importance in 22% of the cases, desirable in 28% and unnecessary in 50%. This intervention was regarded as life-saving in 18 cases (2%). By special training of emergency call operators, the number of unnecessary helicopter missions could be minimised (9% of all missions). To continuing specialisation and centralisation of emergency care with extended catchment areas, demands an advanced transport system. This trial has shown that through the use of a physician-manned ambulance helicopter the emergency care within the region can be centralised with retention of adequate turn-out times.
Pain management is described to be insufficient for patients suffering from a hip fracture, and the management for this vulnerable group of patients may be challenging due to their medical history (multiple comorbidities) and polypharmacy. Previous research has mainly focused on fast tracks aiming to reduce time to surgery. But the research on how pain management is handled for these patients in the prehospital context has been sparse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the ambulance personnel's experience of managing the pain of patients with a suspected hip fracture. A descriptive and qualitative design with Critical Incident Technique was used for collecting data. Moreover, a qualitative content analysis was used for analysing the collected data. Twenty-two participants communicated their experiences and 51 incidents were analysed. The main finding in the study was that the ambulance personnel, by using their clinical knowledge and by empowering the patients to participate in their own care, managed to individualize the pain relief for patients with a suspected hip fracture through a variety of interventions.