Fifty six Danish streptomycin (Sm) resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from pigs (n=34), calves (n=3) and humans (n=19) were characterised with respect to co-resistances (14 drugs), transferability of Sm-resistance by conjugation, genetic determinants encoding Sm-resistance and diversity with respect to localisation of genes in the genome and DNA-sequences. Forty-six strains carried resistance(s) other than Sm-resistance. Nineteen different co-resistance patterns were observed and tetracycline was the most commonly observed resistance in these patterns. In 22 of the strains, Sm-resistance was transferred by conjugation. Eleven strains contained the gene aadA only, six strains contained aadA+strA+strB, and 35 strains contained strA+strB. Partial sequences of aadA were obtained from four strains. Three strains showed identical sequences to a published aadA sequence from the transposon Tn7, and in one strain the sequence showed one synonymous substitution compared to this sequence. Partial sequences were obtained of strA and strB in seven strains. The sequence of strB was identical to the published sequence of the plasmid RSF1010 in all strains. All seven sequences of strA were identical and differed from the sequence of strA in RSF1010 by two non-synonymous substitutions.
An outbreak of human anthrax occurred in Sverdlovsk, Union of Soviet Socialists Republic (now Ekaterinburg, Russia) in April 1979. Officials attributed this to consumption of contaminated meat, but Western governments believed it resulted from inhalation of spores accidentally released from a nearby military research facility. Tissue samples from 11 victims were obtained and methods of efficiently extracting high-quality total DNA from these samples were developed. Extracted DNA was analyzed by using PCR to determine whether it contained Bacillus anthracis-specific sequences. Double PCR using "nested primers" increased sensitivity of the assay significantly. Tissue samples from 11 persons who died during the epidemic were examined. Results demonstrated that the entire complement of B. anthracis toxin and capsular antigen genes required for pathogenicity were present in tissues from each of these victims. Tissue from a vaccination site contained primarily nucleic acids from a live vaccine, although traces of genes from the infecting organisms were also present. PCR analysis using primers that detect the vrrA gene variable region on the B. anthracis chromosome demonstrated that at least four of the five known strain categories defined by this region were present in the tissue samples. Only one category is found in a single B. anthracis strain.