The magnetic fields from overhead power lines and other electromagnetic sources were determined at the birth and diagnosis dwellings of all tumor cases reported in the county of Stockholm during the years 1958-73 for individuals 0-18 years of age. The study was limited to 716 cases having a permanent address in the county both at time of birth and diagnosis. An equivalent number of controls was matched to the cases according to church district of birth, age, and sex. Outside each dwelling, the occurrence of visible electrical constructions (6-200-kV high-voltage wires, substations, transformers, electric railroads, and subways) within 150 m of the dwelling was noted. Also, the 50-Hz magnetic field was measured outside the main entrance of the dwelling. Visible 200-kv wires were noted at 45 of 2,098 dwellings and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The magnetic field measured at the dwelling varied between 0.0004 to 1.9 microT (mean value 0.069 microT). The magnetic field was higher (0.22 microT) at dwellings with visible 200-kV wires than at those without such wires. Magnetic fields of 0.3 microT or more were measured at 48 dwellings, and were found twice as frequently among cases as among controls (P less than .05). The difference was most pronounced for dwellings of nervous system tumors and was less for leukemias.
Part of a crew on a Norwegian naval ship was exposed to the radar waves for approximately 7 min from an American destroyer during an incident at sea in August 2012. Information about the exposure was not given by the navy. This is a description of what happened with the crew on board after this event. 14 persons had been on the ship bridge or outside on the deck during the exposure and the rest of the crew had been inside the ship. 27 persons were examined at a hospital 6-8 months after the event, as they had developeda large number of symptoms from different organ systems. They were very worried about all types of possible adverse health effects due to the incident. All were examined by an occupational physician and anophthalmologist, by an interview, clinical examinations and blood tests at the hospital. The interview of the personnel revealed that they had not experienced any major heating during the episode. Their symptoms developed days or weeks after the radar exposure. They had no objective signs of adverse health effects at the examination related to the incident. Long-term health effect from the exposure is highly unlikely. The development of different symptoms after the incident was probably due to the fear of possible health consequences. Better routines for such incidents at sea should be developed to avoid this type of anxiety.
Various kinds of works of 6-11th-form schoolchildren on Macintosh computers were physiologically and hygienically assessed at the lesson of information science and computer engineering (ISCE), as well as typing. The fatigue of a visual analyzer was due to the time of looking through the data available on the display; the adverse changes of the higher nervous activity depends on the complexity of educational materials and the intensity of work on a computer. Three-hour studies in ISCE should be excluded from the time able of lessons as they do not meet hygienic requirements.
Epidemiologic studies examining the risk of cancer among occupational groups exposed to electric fields (EF) and or magnetic fields (MF) have relied on traditional summaries of exposure such as the time weighted arithmetic or geometric mean exposure. Findings from animal and cellular studies support the consideration of alternative measures of exposure capable of capturing threshold and intermittent measures of field strength. The main objective of this study was to identify a series of suitable exposure metrics for an ongoing cancer incidence study in a cohort of Ontario electric utility workers. Principal components analysis (PCA) and correlational analysis were used to explore the relationships within and between series of EF and MF exposure indices. Exposure data were collected using personal monitors worn by a sample of 820 workers which yielded 4247 worker days of measurement data. For both EF and MF, the first axis of the PCA identified a series of intercorrelated indices that included the geometric mean, median and arithmetic mean. A considerable portion of the variability in EF and MF exposures were accounted for by two other principal component axes. The second axes for EF and MF exposures were representative of the standard deviation (standard deviation) and thresholds of field measures. To a lesser extent, the variability in the exposure variable was explained by time dependent indices which consisted of autocorrelations at 5 min lags and average transitions in field strength. Our results suggest that the variability in exposure data can only be accounted for by using several exposure indices, and consequently, a series of metrics should be used when exploring the risk of cancer owing to MF and EF exposure in this cohort. Furthermore, the poor correlations observed between indices of MF and EF reinforce the need to be take both fields into account when assessing the risk of cancer in this occupational group.
The necessity of studying the impact of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the health status of the operation staff from power enterprises has stemmed from the improper prior significance being attached to this matter. The subjects of the investigations were operators' premises, work environment system, and operation staff. The intensity of the electrical and magnetic constituents of a 50-Hz EMF in the operation staff's workplaces, in the areas adjacent to 500- and 110-kVsubstation grounding systems, and in the flats of the approximate apartment houses where the workers lived was measured. Then their permissible cumulative daily exposure was calculated. Working arrangement was also assessed. The examinees' behavior was predicted in stress situations. This permitted a scientific rationale to be provided for protective measures against exposure to electromagnetic irradiations in productive and nonproductive conditions.
Few environmental health issues are as contentious as the question of whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from power lines increases cancer risk. Among the many actors in this controversy, epidemiologists have played the leading role in raising the question and motivating research. Epidemiologic studies of the effects of exposure to power-line EMFs include the investigation by Dr. Gilles Thériault and colleagues into incidence rates of cancer among electric-utility workers in Quebec, Ontario and France. With the development of personal dosimeters to measure exposure to electric, magnetic and pulsed EMFs, occupational studies in the 1990s have made an important methodologic advance. But, as Thériault explains, improvements in assessing exposure have not yet translated into clear and consistent findings.
Cites: Am J Epidemiol. 1988 Jul;128(1):21-383164167
OBJECTIVES: To investigate a broad range of occupational, hobby, and lifestyle exposures, suggested as risk factors for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). METHODS: A case-control study, comprising 255 Ph+CML patients from southern Sweden and matched controls, was conducted. Individual data on work tasks, hobbies, and lifestyle exposures were obtained by telephone interviews. Occupational hygienists assessed occupational and hobby exposures for each subject individually. Also, occupational titles were obtained from national registries, and group level exposure-that is, the exposure proportion for each occupational title-was assessed with a job exposure matrix. The effects of 11 exposures using individual data and two exposures using group data (organic solvents and animal dust) were estimated. RESULTS: For the individual data on organic solvents, an effect was found for moderate or high intensity of exposure (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 11) and for long duration (15-20 years) of exposure (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.0). By contrast, the group data showed no association (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.8; moderate or high intensity versus no exposure). For extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), only individual data were available. An association with long occupational exposure to EMFs was found (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.5). However, no effect of EMF intensity was indicated. No significant effects of benzene, gasoline or diesel, or tobacco smoking were found. OR estimates below unity were suggested for personal use of hair dye and for agricultural exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between exposure to organic solvents and EMFs, and Ph+CML were indicated but were not entirely consistent.