Association Between Use of Primary-Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators and Mortality in Patients With Heart Failure: A Prospective Propensity Score-Matched Analysis From the Swedish Heart Failure Registry.
Most randomized trials on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled patients >20 years ago. We investigated the association between ICD use and all-cause mortality in a contemporary heart failure with reduced ejection fraction cohort and examined relevant subgroups.
Patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry fulfilling the European Society of Cardiology criteria for primary-prevention ICD were included. The association between ICD use and 1-year and 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality was assessed by Cox regression models in a 1:1 propensity score-matched cohort and in prespecified subgroups.
Of 16?702 eligible patients, only 1599 (10%) had an ICD. After matching, 1305 ICD recipients were compared with 1305 nonrecipients. ICD use was associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality risk within 1 year (hazard ratio, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.60-0.90]) and 5 years (hazard ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78-0.99]). Results were consistent in all subgroups including patients with versus without ischemic heart disease, men versus women, those aged
CommentIn: Circulation. 2019 Nov 5;140(19):1540-1542 PMID 31476898
CommentIn: Circulation. 2020 Mar 17;141(11):e648-e649 PMID 32176544
CommentIn: Circulation. 2020 Mar 17;141(11):e646-e647 PMID 32176545
There are limited data on the prognostic implications of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) assessment in patients with mildly symptomatic heart failure (HF) who receive cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D).
The effect of elevated baseline and 1-year BNP levels (dichotomized at the upper tertile BNP of 120 pg/mL) on the risk of HF or death was assessed among the cohort of 1197 patients with baseline BNP data enrolled in MADIT (Multicenter Automated Defibrillator Implantation Trial)-CRT. Elevated baseline BNP was associated with a significant 68% (P=0.007) and 58% (P=0.02) increase in the risk of HF or death among MADIT-CRT patients allocated to CRT-D and implantable cardioverter defibrillator-only therapy, respectively. At 1 year of follow-up, patients allocated to CRT-D displayed significantly greater reductions in BNP (26% reduction) levels compared with implantable cardioverter defibrillator-only patients (8% increase; P=0.005). Patients with CRT-D in whom 1-year BNP levels were reduced or remained low experienced a significantly lower risk of subsequent HF or death as compared with patients in whom 1-year BNP levels were high. Similarly, the echocardiographic response to CRT-D was highest among those who maintained low BNP levels or in whom BNP level at 1-year was reduced.
Our findings suggest that assessment of baseline and follow-up BNP provides important prognostic implications in patients with mildly symptomatic HF who receive CRT.
Cardiac resynchronization (CRT) prolongs survival in patients with systolic heart failure and QRS prolongation. However, most trials excluded patients with permanent atrial fibrillation.
The Resynchronization for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT) randomized patients to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or ICD+CRT, stratified by the presence of permanent atrial fibrillation. Patients with permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to CRT-ICD (n=114) or ICD (n=115). Patients receiving a CRT-ICD were similar to those receiving an ICD: age (71.6±7.3 versus 70.4±7.7 years), left ventricular ejection fraction (22.9±5.3% versus 22.3±5.1%), and QRS duration (151.0±23.6 versus 153.4±24.7 ms). There was no difference in the primary outcome of death or heart failure hospitalization between those assigned to CRT-ICD versus ICD (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.65-1.41; P=0.82). Cardiovascular death was similar between treatment arms (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.55-1.71; P=0.91); however, there was a trend for fewer heart failure hospitalizations with CRT-ICD (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-1.01; P=0.052). The change in 6-minute hall walk duration between baseline and 12 months was not different between treatment arms (CRT-ICD: 19±84 m versus ICD: 16±76 m; P=0.88). Patients treated with CRT-ICD showed a trend for a greater improvement in Minnesota Living with Heart Failure score between baseline and 6 months (CRT-ICD: 41±21 to 31±21; ICD: 33±20 to 28±20; P=0.057).
Patients with permanent atrial fibrillation who are otherwise CRT candidates appear to gain minimal benefit from CRT-ICD compared with a standard ICD.
Insulation breaches with externalization of conductor cables have been described for St-Jude Medical Riata™ defibrillation leads. Published data on the incidence of Riata lead abnormalities are quite heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate systematically the prevalence of lead abnormalities using a postero-anterior (PA) and lateral chest X-ray (CXR).
From 2002 to 2008, 552 Riata defibrillation leads were implanted at our centre. We evaluated patients for potential insulation breaches. A PA and lateral CXR was obtained. Chest X-rays were reviewed by two electrophysiologists using a zooming function with magnification up to factor 7.5 and were classified as normal or abnormal for the presence of conductor externalization. A total of 284 patients were included. Riata lead models were 1570, 1580, 1582, 1590, 1592, 7000, 7002, and 7022. The total frequency of radiological lead defects was 24.3%. Insulation breaches occurred at zones of major lead curvature. Mean maximal spacing between extruding lead components was 3.6 ± 1.9 mm (range 2.0-12.4). Abnormal CXRs were more frequent in 8F leads (31.4% vs. 6.3%; P
Dispatch of basic life support-trained first responders equipped with automated external defibrillators in addition to advanced life support-trained emergency medical services personnel in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has, in some minor cohort studies, been associated with improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between basic life support plus advanced life support response and survival in OHCA at a national level.
This prospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2014. People who experienced OHCA in 9 Swedish counties covered by basic life support plus advanced life support response were compared with a propensity-matched contemporary control group of people who experienced OHCA in 12 counties where only emergency medical services was dispatched, providing advanced life support. Primary outcome was survival to 30 days. The analytic sample consisted of 2786 pairs (n=5572) derived from the total cohort of 7308 complete cases. The median time from emergency call to arrival of emergency medical services or first responder was 9 minutes in the intervention group versus 10 minutes in the controls (P
Cites: Am J Emerg Med. 1985 Mar;3(2):114-9 PMID 3970766
Background Despite the positive effects of physical activity, the risk of sudden cardiac arrest is transiently increased during and immediately after exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the general population and to compare characteristics and prognosis of these cardiac arrests with non-exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Methods Data from all cases of treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outside of home reported to the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from 2011-2015 in three counties of Sweden were investigated (population 2.1?m). This registry captures almost 100% of all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Sweden. Results Of 1825 out-of hospital cardiac arrests, 137 (7.5%) were exercise-related, resulting in an incidence of 1.2 per 100,000 person-years. The 30-day survival rate was significantly higher among exercise-related out-of hospital cardiac arrests compared to non-exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (54.3 % vs 19.4%, p?
Complications after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) replacement are often clinically devastating, particularly when infection or reoperation occurs. Identifying factors contributing to complications may permit identification of high-risk individuals that warrant incremental monitoring and therapy to attenuate risk. In addition, replacement may be a discretionary decision in the context of an advisory or borderline device performance and patient, device, and implanter factors that predict adverse outcome may assist in clinical decision-making.
In a prospective, multicenter, population-based registry of all ICD patients at 18 centers in Ontario, Canada, we examined 45-day complication and all-cause mortality rates from February 2007 to August 2009 in patients undergoing ICD generator replacement. Complications were determined longitudinally and were categorized as major or minor. ICD replacement was performed in 1081 of 5176 patients (20.8%) undergoing ICD implantation (age, 64.3±12.7 years; 78.5% men). In patients undergoing ICD replacement, 47 patients (4.3%) had a complication within 45 days, with 47 major complications in 28 patients (2.6%), most commonly infection (n=23), lead revision (n=35), electrical storm (n=14), and pulmonary edema (n=13). Minor complications occurred in 2.3% of patients, most commonly incisional infection (n=10) and pocket hematoma (n=10). On multivariable analysis, risk factors associated with major complications were Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.70 for class 2 to 4 versus 0 to 1; P=0.027) and multiple previous procedures on the pocket (adjusted HR, 3.35 for >1 versus 1; P=0.058). Risk factors associated with any complication were the use of antiarrhythmic therapy (adjusted HR, 6.29; P=0.001), implanter volume (adjusted HR 10.4 for 120/y, P=0.026), and Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina class (adjusted HR, 3.00 for class 2 to 4 versus 0 to 1; P=0.031). In a Cox model with a time-dependent variable of major complication within 45 days after replacement, major complications after ICD replacement were associated with an increased risk of mortality at 45, 90, and 180 days (adjusted HR, 9.61, 12.69, and 6.41, respectively; P=0.002 to 0.039).
Risk factors associated with complications after ICD replacement include the presence of angina, antiarrhythmic therapy, increased number of previous procedures, and low implanter volume. Major complications may be associated with increased risk of subsequent mortality.
Authors of expert guidelines and consensus statements recommend that decisions at the end-of-life (EOL) be discussed before and after implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and include promotion of shared decision-making. The purpose of this study was to describe experiences, attitudes, and knowledge about the ICD at EOL in ICD recipients and to compare experiences, attitudes, and knowledge in ICD recipients with and without heart failure (HF). We further sought to determine factors associated with having discussions about EOL.
Using a national registry in Sweden of all ICD recipients (n=5355) in 2012, an EOL questionnaire, along with other ICD-related measures, was completed by 2403 ICD recipients. Of the participants, 1275 (n=53%) had HF. Their responses in the knowledge, experience, and attitude domains were almost identical to those without HF. Forty percent of patients with and without HF did not want to discuss their illness trajectory or deactivation of their ICD ever. In logistic regression analyses, we found that having had an ICD shock (OR, 2.05; CI, 1.64-2.56), having high levels of anxiety (OR, 1.41; CI, 1.04-1.92), and having high levels of ICD concerns (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.22-1.92) were the only significant predictors of having discussions with providers about EOL scenarios (P
Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center and the Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Research Methods Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Aug 1;5(4):706-13
Underuse of implantable defibrillators has been previously noted in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death, as well as for survivors of sudden cardiac death. We sought to determine the utilization rates in a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-eligible population and mortality in this group compared with a group that had undergone implantation of this therapy.
A retrospective cohort of patients from April 1, 2006, to December 31, 2009, was used to define a primary prevention ICD-eligible population. Two groups were compared on the basis of ICD implantation (no-ICD versus ICD). The primary outcome measure was mortality. Of the 717 patients found to be potentially eligible for a primary prevention ICD, 116 (16%) were referred. The remaining cohort of 601 patients were compared with an existing cohort of primary prevention ICD patients (n=290). A significant survival benefit was associated with primary prevention ICD implantation (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI [0.33-0.64]; P
Comment In: Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012 Aug 1;5(4):624-522895600