An increasing number of octogenarians are being subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The purpose of this study was to examine age-dependent trends in postoperative mortality and preoperative comorbidity over time following CABG.
All patients who underwent isolated CABG surgery between January 1996 and December 2012 in Denmark were included. Patients were identified through nationwide administrative registers. Age was categorized into five different groups and time into three periods to see if mortality and preoperative comorbidity had changed over time. Predictors of 30-day mortality were analysed in a multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models and survival at 1 and 5 years was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves.
A total of 38 830 patients were included; the median age was 65.4 ± 9.5 years, increasing over time to 66.6 ± 9.5 years. Males comprised 80%. The number of octogenarians was 1488 (4%). The median survival was 14.7 years (60-69 years), 10.7 years (70-74 years), 8.9 years (75-79 years) and 7.2 years (=80 years). The 30-day mortality rate was 3%, increasing with age (1% in patients 80 years), respectively. The proportion of patients >75 years increased from 10 to 20% during the study period as well as the proportion of patients undergoing urgent or emergency surgery. The burden of comorbidities increased over time, e.g. congestive heart failure 13-17%, diabetes 12-21%, stroke 9-11%, in all age groups. Age and emergency surgery were the main predictors of 30-day mortality: age >80 years [hazard ratio (HR): 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.41-7.50], emergency surgery (HR: 5.23, 95% CI: 4.38-6.25).
Patients are getting older at the time of surgery and have a heavier burden of comorbidities than before. The proportion of patients undergoing urgent or emergency surgery increased with age and over time. Despite this, the 30-day mortality decreased over time and long-term survival increased, except in octogenarians where it was stable. Octogenarians had substantially higher 30-day mortality compared with younger patients but surgery can be performed with acceptable risks and good long-term outcomes.
The revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) holds a central role in preoperative cardiac risk stratification in noncardiac surgery. Its performance in unselected populations, including different age groups, has, however, not been systematically investigated. We assessed the relationship of RCRI with major adverse cardiovascular events in an unselected cohort of patients undergoing elective, noncardiac surgery overall and in different age groups.
We followed up all individuals = 25 years who underwent major elective noncardiac surgery in Denmark (January 1, 2005, to November 30, 2011) for the 30-day risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death). There were 742 of 357,396 (0.2%), 755 of 74.889 (1.0%), 521 of 11,921 (4%), and 257 of 3146 (8%) major adverse cardiovascular events occurring in RCRI classes I, II, III, and IV. Multivariable odds ratio estimates were as follows: ischemic heart disease 3.30 (95% confidence interval, 2.96-3.69), high-risk surgery 2.70 (2.46-2.96), congestive heart failure 2.65 (2.29-3.06), cerebrovascular disease 10.02 (9.08-11.05), insulin therapy 1.62 (1.37-1.93), and kidney disease 1.45 (1.33-1.59). Modeling RCRI classes as a continuous variable, C statistic was highest among age group 56 to 65 years (0.772) and lowest for those aged >85 years (0.683). Sensitivity of RCRI class >I (ie, having = 1 risk factor) for capturing major adverse cardiovascular events was 59%, 71%, 64%, 66%, and 67% in patients aged = 55, 56 to 65, 66 to 75, 76 to 85, and >85 years, respectively; the negative predictive values were >98% across all age groups.
In a nationwide unselected cohort, the performance of the RCRI was similar to that of the original cohort. Having = 1 risk factor was of moderate sensitivity, but high negative predictive value for all ages.
The purpose was to estimate the proportion of current open aortic arch reconstructions that might be feasible for endovascular repair. From all elective repair made in Southern Sweden in one center between 2005 and 2012, 129 open and eight endovascular aortic arch repairs were identified. The anatomy of the ascending arch and descending aorta as well as the arch vessels was categorized from multiplanar and axial computed tomography scans. Of 129 open cases, only two (1.5%) were suitable for endovascular repair. Among 137 all arch open and endovascular arch reconstructions performed during the study period, only 10 (7%) were candidates for endovascular repair. The most common exclusion for endovascular repair was an excessively large ascending aortic diameter. In conclusion, only a small proportion of patients having an open arch repair are suitable for endovascular arch repair, a finding related to the large diameter of the ascending aorta.
Swedish health care is regulated to involve the patient in every intervention process. In the area of post-operative pain, it is therefore important to evaluate patient experience of the quality of pain management. Previous research has focused on mapping this area but not on comparing experiences between acutely and electively admitted patients. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of post-operative pain management quality among acutely and electively admitted patients at a Swedish surgical department performing soft-tissue surgery.
A survey study design was used as a method based on a multidimensional instrument to assess post-operative pain management: Strategic and Clinical Quality Indicators in Postoperative Pain Management (SCQIPP). Consecutive patients at all wards of a university hospital's surgical department were included. Data collection was performed at hospital discharge.
In total, 160 patients participated, of whom 40 patients were acutely admitted. A significant difference between acutely and electively admitted patients was observed in the SCQIPP area of environment, whereas acute patients rated the post-operative pain management quality lower compared with those who were electively admitted.
There may be a need for improvement in the areas of post-operative pain management in Sweden, both specifically and generally. There may also be a difference in the experience of post-operative pain quality between acutely and electively admitted patients in this study, specifically in the area of environment. In addition, low levels of the perceived quality of post-operative pain management among the patients were consistent, but satisfaction with analgesic treatment was rated as good.
Because the rates of cesarean section (CS) are increasing worldwide, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term effects that mode of delivery may have on child development.
To investigate the association between obstetric mode of delivery and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Perinatal factors and ASD diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9),and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10),were identified from the Swedish Medical Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register. We conducted stratified Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the effect of mode of delivery on ASD. We then used conditional logistic regression to perform a sibling design study, which consisted of sibling pairs discordant on ASD status. Analyses were adjusted for year of birth (ie, partially adjusted) and then fully adjusted for various perinatal and sociodemographic factors. The population-based cohort study consisted of all singleton live births in Sweden from January 1, 1982, through December 31, 2010. Children were followed up until first diagnosis of ASD, death, migration, or December 31, 2011 (end of study period), whichever came first. The full cohort consisted of 2,697,315 children and 28,290 cases of ASD. Sibling control analysis consisted of 13,411 sibling pairs.
Obstetric mode of delivery defined as unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective CS, and emergency CS (defined by before or after onset of labor).
The ASD status as defined using codes from the ICD-9 (code 299) and ICD-10 (code F84).
In adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, elective CS (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27) and emergency CS (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.10-1.20) were associated with ASD when compared with unassisted VD. In the sibling control analysis, elective CS was not associated with ASD in partially (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.85-1.11) or fully adjusted (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76-1.04) models. Emergency CS was significantly associated with ASD in partially adjusted analysis (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.06-1.36), but this effect disappeared in the fully adjusted model (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.85-1.11).
This study confirms previous findings that children born by CS are approximately 20% more likely to be diagnosed as having ASD. However, the association did not persist when using sibling controls, implying that this association is due to familial confounding by genetic and/or environmental factors.
Tubal ligation results in less advanced stages and lower risk of metastatic spread at diagnosis of endometrial cancer (EC) but the primary preventive effect of the procedure is unclear. In a Swedish nationwide population-based cohort study, we crosslinked registry data for tubal ligation, EC, and death for Swedish women between 1973 and 2010. All women were followed until EC, emigration, hysterectomy for non-cancerous reasons, death, or end of follow-up. Primary outcome was incidence of EC and secondary outcome overall survival. We calculated adjusted incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 person-years and hazard ratios (HR) using Cox regression models. A total of 35,711 cases of EC were identified among 5,385,186 women. The IR of EC among exposed was 17.7 (95% CI 15.7-19.9) versus 29.0 (95% CI 28.7-29.3) among unexposed (per 100,000 women years). Exposed individuals had significantly reduced risk of EC (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.65-0.83). The mortality rate among women with EC was 72% lower in exposed compared to unexposed (IR 1,441; 95% CI 1,089-1,907 and IR 5,136; 95% CI 5,065-5,209, respectively) which following adjustment corresponded to a HR of 0.71 (95% CI 0.49-1.03). Tubal ligation was associated with lower risk of EC as well as mortality rates in women with EC. Elective tubal ligation may be adopted in future cancer preventive strategies but must be balanced against the irreversibility of the procedure, which preclude further unassisted reproduction.
Comorbidity has a negative influence on the long-term prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas its impact on the postoperative course is less clear.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of comorbidity on anastomotic leak and short-term outcomes after resection for colonic cancer.
This is a retrospective nationwide cohort study
: Data were obtained from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group and the National Patient Registry.
Patients with colonic cancer undergoing elective resection between 2001 and 2008 were selected.
The primary outcome was the ability of comorbidity to predict anastomotic leak. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and length of stay. Comorbidity was assessed by the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Multivariable logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics curves were used to adjust for confounding.
The rate of anastomotic leak was 535/8597 (6.2%). The mean (95% CI) Charlson score was 0.83 (0.72-0.94) and 0.63 (0.61-0.66) for patients with and without anastomotic leak, p 2, p
Despite the biological plausibility of an association between obstetric mode of delivery and psychosis in later life, studies to date have been inconclusive. We assessed the association between mode of delivery and later onset of psychosis in the offspring. A population-based cohort including data from the Swedish National Registers was used. All singleton live births between 1982 and 1995 were identified (n= 1,345,210) and followed-up to diagnosis at age 16 or later. Mode of delivery was categorized as: unassisted vaginal delivery (VD), assisted VD, elective Caesarean section (CS) (before onset of labor), and emergency CS (after onset of labor). Outcomes included any psychosis; nonaffective psychoses (including schizophrenia only) and affective psychoses (including bipolar disorder only and depression with psychosis only). Cox regression analysis was used reporting partially and fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sibling-matched Cox regression was performed to adjust for familial confounding factors. In the fully adjusted analyses, elective CS was significantly associated with any psychosis (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24). Similar findings were found for nonaffective psychoses (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.99, 1.29) and affective psychoses (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31) (?(2)for heterogeneityP= .69). In the sibling-matched Cox regression, this association disappeared (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.78, 1.37). No association was found between assisted VD or emergency CS and psychosis. This study found that elective CS is associated with an increase in offspring psychosis. However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment.
The impact of cancer patient pathways (CPP) on long-term outcome after surgery for colorectal cancer has not been documented. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CPP on survival in patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer.
This was a retrospective cohort study performed in a single centre on prospectively collected data from a national database, the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. In total, we reviewed 309 consecutive patients (145 females) with a median age of 70 years (range: 30-92 years), who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer between 2007 and 2009.
A total of 148 patients who underwent elective surgery after the introduction of CPP on 1 April 2008 had a decrease in the median number of days from referral to endoscopy (from 8 to 6, p = 0.001, from referral to oncological treatment (from 46.5 to 32 days, p
There is substantial international variation in mortality after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair; many non-operative factors influence risk-adjusted outcomes. This study compared 90-day and 5-year mortality for patients undergoing elective AAA repair in England and Sweden.
Patients were identified from English Hospital Episode Statistics and the Swedish Vascular Registry between 2003 and 2012. Ninety-day mortality and 5-year survival were compared after adjustment for age and sex. Separate within-country analyses were performed to examine the impact of co-morbidity, hospital teaching status and hospital annual caseload.
The study included 36?249 patients who had AAA treatment in England, with a median age of 74 (i.q.r. 69-79) years, of whom 87·2 per cent were men. There were 7806 patients treated for AAA in Sweden, with a median of age 73 (68-78) years, of whom 82·9 per cent were men. Ninety-day mortality rates were poorer in England than in Sweden (5·0 versus 3·9 per cent respectively; P?