Adiponectin may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the relation of adiponectin on early functional and structural markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in a large population-based cohort of young men and women.
We measured serum adiponectin using radioimmunoassay in 2,147 young adults (ages 24-39 years) participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. The subjects had ultrasound data on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid artery elasticity (n = 2,139) and brachial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) (n = 1,996). In univariate analysis, adiponectin was inversely associated with IMT (r = -0.16, P
To assess the alcohol drinking patterns in a cohort of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients and the possible influence on the development of fibrosis.
Ninety-six patients with PSC were evaluated with a validated questionnaire about a patient's lifetime drinking habits: the lifetime drinking history (LDH) questionnaire. In addition, clinical status, transient elastography and biochemistry values were analysed and registered. Patients were defined as having either significant or non-significant fibrosis. Significant fibrosis was defined as either an elastography value of = 17.3 kPa or the presence of clinical signs of cirrhosis. Patients were divided into two groups depending on their alcohol consumption patterns; no/low alcohol consumption (one drink or unit/d) and moderate/high alcohol consumption (= 1 drink or unit/d). LDH data were calculated to estimate lifetime alcohol intake (LAI), current alcohol intake, drinks per year before and after diagnosis of PSC. We also calculated the number of episodes of binge-drinking (defined as consuming = 5 drinks per occasion) in total, before and after the diagnosis of PSC.
The mean LAI was 3882 units of alcohol, giving a mean intake after onset of alcohol consumption of 2.6 units per week. Only 9% of patients consumed alcohol equal to or more than one unit per day. Current alcohol intake in patients with significant fibrosis (n = 26) was less than in patients without significant fibrosis (n = 70), as shown by lower values of phosphatidylethanol (B-PEth) (0.1 ?mol/L vs 0.33 ?mol/L, respectively, P = 0.002) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) (0.88% vs 1.06%, respectively, P = 0.02). Self-reported LAI was similar between the two groups. Patients with significant fibrosis reduced their alcohol intake after diagnosis from 103 to 88 units per year whereas patients without fibrosis increased their alcohol intake after PSC diagnosis from 111 to 151 units/year. There were no correlations between elastography values and intake of alcohol (units/year) (r = -0.036).
PSC patients have low alcohol consumption. The lack of correlation between fibrosis and alcohol intake indicates that a low alcohol intake is safe in these patients.
The aim of this study was to determine whether blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), serum lipids, glucose, and renal function are associated with left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular function in a low-risk population.
The associations of common risk factors with cardiac function were assessed, using multiple linear regression, in a random sample of 1,266 individuals free from hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. A combination of conventional echocardiographic, speckle-tracking, and tissue Doppler methods was used to assess cardiac function.
Older age and higher BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were associated with lower LV function. Thus, LV strain was reduced by approximately 5% per 5 kg/m(2) increase in BMI and by 4% per 10 mm Hg increase in diastolic blood pressure. Corresponding reductions in peak early diastolic mitral annular velocity were 7% for both BMI and diastolic blood pressure. Higher HDL cholesterol was associated with better LV function. In women, smoking was also associated with reduced LV function. LV function was lower also at low levels of diastolic pressure and BMI. Reduced right ventricular function was related to older age, smoking, higher diastolic blood pressure and non-HDL cholesterol, and lower HDL cholesterol.
These findings suggest that conventional risk factors may predict cardiac function many years before clinical disease. The J-shaped associations related to diastolic blood pressure and BMI may suggest that in some individuals, low levels of these factors may indicate underlying but unknown disease.
The prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score in urine is a promising biomarker for prostate cancer. Real-time elastography (RTE) is a well-documented ultrasound modality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability to detect significant cancer foci in the prostate with these methods alone and in combination.
From September 2009 to September 2010, 40 patients planned for radical prostatectomy underwent a PCA3 urine test and RTE before operation. A Hitachi EUB-8500 with prostate end-fire transrectal probe was used. The PCA3 score was evaluated with a standard cut-off value of 35. RTE was evaluated in correlation with whole-mount section pathology. Three patients fulfilled the criteria for insignificant prostate cancer and were excluded from the study.
The PCA3 score was increased in 26 patients (70%). RTE identified at least one tumour in 33 out of 37 patients (89%). RTE detected the largest tumour in 27 out of 37 patients (73%). More than one cancer was present in 29 patients and RTE identified more than one tumour in 13 of these. The RTE was false positive in four patients. The PCA3 score was increased in three out of four false-negative RTE patients. By combining both methods, 36 out of 37 patients (97%) with significant prostate cancer were detected.
The combination of PCA3 score and RTE detected 97% of significant prostate cancers. The combinative use of RTE and PCA3 will be further investigated in an unselected series of men with suspected prostate cancer.
Accurate tools for the noninvasive detection of hepatic steatosis are needed. The Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) specifically targets liver steatosis using a process based on transient elastography.
Patients with chronic liver disease and body mass index (BMI) =28 kg/m(2) underwent biopsy and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) with simultaneous CAP determination using the FibroScan(®) M probe. The performance of the CAP for diagnosing steatosis compared with biopsy was assessed using areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC).
A total of 153 patients were included: 69% were male, median BMI was 32 kg/m(2); 47% had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); and 65% had significant (=10%) steatosis. The CAP was significantly correlated with the percentage of steatosis (? = 0.47) and steatosis grade (? = 0.51; both P 33% and >66% steatosis were 0.79, 0.76 and 0.70, respectively.
The CAP is a promising tool for the noninvasive detection of hepatic steatosis. Advantages of CAP include its ease of measurement, operator-independence and simultaneous availability with LSM for fibrosis assessment.
Department of Cardiology, Gentofte University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Clinical Medicine Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) detects early signs of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction; however, the prognostic significance of DTI after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of DTI after STEMI in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
In total, 391 patients who were admitted with STEMIs and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention were prospectively included. All participants were examined by echocardiography 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3 days) after STEMI. Longitudinal systolic (s'), early diastolic (e'), and late diastolic (a') myocardial velocities were measured using color DTI at six mitral annular sites and averaged to provide global estimates.
The median follow-up period was 25 months (interquartile range, 19-32 months). The primary end point was a composite of death, heart failure, or a new myocardial infarction. Patients with low global systolic function (s') or low global diastolic function (e') had >2 times greater risk for the combined end point compared with patients with high global s' (hazard ratio, 2.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.64-4.13; P
Left ventricular systolic function is a key determinant of outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to study speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) for early risk evaluation in STEMI and compare it with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), wall motion score index (WMSI), and end-systolic volume index (ESVI).
Five-hundred seventy-six patients underwent echocardiography =24 hours after primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI. The end point was the composite of death, hospitalization with reinfarction, congestive heart failure, or stroke. Associations with outcome were assessed by multivariate Cox regression with adjustment for clinical parameters. Hazard ratios (HRs) for events within the first year are reported per absolute percentage GLS increase.
During a median follow-up period of 24 months, 162 patients experienced at least one event. GLS was associated with the composite end point (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.29) and also when controlling for LVEF (adjusted HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07-1.29) and ESVI (adjusted HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08-1.28). Although WMSI was significantly associated with outcome beyond any association accounted for by GLS, a borderline significant association was found after controlling for WMSI (adjusted HR for GLS, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). When GLS or WMSI was known, there was no significant association between LVEF or ESVI and outcome.
In a large population of patients with STEMI, GLS and WMSI were comparable and both superior for early risk assessment compared with volume-based left ventricular function indicators such as LVEF and ESVI. Compared with WMSI, the advantage of GLS is the provision of a semiautomated quantitative measure.
Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive and well validated method for measurement of liver stiffness. The aim of this study was to use TE to evaluate whether patients with sustained virological response (SVR) have lower liver stiffness than patients with non-SVR after treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
Patients with CHC, who had undergone liver biopsy before treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, were included from four clinical centres in Denmark. All patients were examined with TE and had a blood test taken for hepatitis C virus-virus detection and analysis of alanine aminotransferase, platelet counts and hyaluronic acid.
For 110 (92%) of the 120 patients included, it was possible to obtain a successful measurement of liver stiffness. Of these, 71 (64.5%) had achieved SVR. Median follow-up time was 47 months. Patients with pretreatment minimal fibrosis (F0/F1) in their liver biopsy had median liver stiffness of 5.3 kPa for SVR versus 6.1 kPa for non-SVR (P=0.56). Patients with pretreatment moderate fibrosis (F2/F3) had median liver stiffness of 5.4 kPa for SVR versus 9.4 kPa for non-SVR (P
Mitral annular displacement (MAD) is a simple marker of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that MAD can distinguish patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMIs) from those with significant coronary artery disease without infarctions, identify coronary occlusion, and predict mortality in patients with NSTEMIs. MAD was compared with established indices of LV function.
In this retrospective study, 167 patients with confirmed NSTEMIs were included at two Scandinavian centers. Forty patients with significant coronary artery disease but without myocardial infarctions were included as controls. Doppler tissue imaging was performed at the mitral level of the left ventricle in the three apical planes, and velocities were integrated over time to acquire MAD. LV ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and wall motion score index were assessed according to guidelines.
MAD and GLS could accurately distinguish patients with NSTEMIs from controls. During 48.6 ± 12.1 months of follow-up, 22 of 167 died (13%). MAD, LV ejection fraction, and GLS were reduced and wall motion score index was increased among those who died compared with those who survived (P