A double-blind, randomized, parallel, comparative study was designed to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of subgingivally administered minocycline ointment versus a vehicle control.
One hundred four patients (104) with moderate to severe adult periodontitis (34 to 64 years of age; mean 46 years) were enrolled in the study. Following scaling and root planing, patients were randomized to receive either 2% minocycline ointment or a matched vehicle control. Study medication was administered directly into the periodontal pocket with a specially designed, graduated, disposable applicator at baseline; week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Scaling and root planing was repeated at months 6 and 12. Standard clinical variables (including probing depth and attachment level) were evaluated at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15. Microbiological sampling using DNA probes was done at baseline; at week 2; and at months 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15.
Both treatment groups showed significant and clinically relevant reductions in the numbers of each of the 7 microorganisms measured during the entire 15-month study period. When differences were detected, sites treated with minocycline ointment always produced statistically significantly greater reductions than sites which received the vehicle control. For initial pockets > or =5 mm, a mean reduction in probing depth of 1.9 mm was seen in the test sites, versus 1.2 mm in the control sites. Sites with a baseline probing depth > or =7 mm and bleeding index >2 showed an average of 2.5 mm reduction with minocycline versus 1.5 mm with the vehicle. Gains in attachment (0.9 mm and 1.1 mm) were observed in minocycline-treated sites, with baseline probing depth > or =5 mm and > or =7 mm, respectively, compared with 0.5 mm and 0.7 mm gain at control sites. Subgingival administration of minocycline ointment was well tolerated.
Overall, the results demonstrate that repeated subgingival administration of minocycline ointment in the treatment of adult periodontitis is safe and leads to significant adjunctive improvement after subgingival instrumentation in both clinical and microbiologic variables over a 15-month period.
Eikenella corrodens (E. corrodens) is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobic bacillus that originally was thought to be an attenuated and indigenous bacterium. In recent years, a number of reports have documented that E. corrodens can be a potential pathogen not only in immunocompromised patients but also in hosts with normal immunity. We herein study E. corrodens infections of the head and neck encountered in our department.
Twenty-two consecutive patients treated in our department for E. corrodens infections of the head and neck were retrospectively analyzed. Microbial specimens were subjected to light microscopic examination, aerobic culture using chocolate and sheep blood agar media, and anaerobic culture using Brucella HK agar medium. Cultured bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests by means of the broth microdilution method.
There were 16 males and 6 females with an average age of 29.9 years. Two patients had malignancy, while the other patients had no particular risk factors or underlying diseases. Infected sites were the ear in 6 cases, pharynx in 12 cases (tonsil in 10 cases), paranasal sinuses in 3 cases, and salivary gland in 1 case. Seventeen patients suffered polymicrobial infections. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the most frequently detected pathogens coexisting with E. corrodens, and mixed infections of E. corrodens and Streptococcus milleri group bacteria were prone to form abscesses. Isolated E. corrodens was susceptible to third-generation cephems (MIC90 = 0.15-0.25 microg/ml), carbapenems (MIC90 8 microg/ml), cefazolin (MIC90 > 4 microg/ml), macrolides (MIC90 = 4-8 microg/ml), and clindamycin (MIC90 > 4 microg/ml).
E. corrodens infections of the head and neck occur most frequently in the tonsil even in hosts with normal immunity. Coexistence with Streptococcus milleri group bacteria and the use of ineffective antibiotics can be exacerbating factors. First-choice drugs for E. corrodens infections should be third-generation cephems, carbapenems, or new quinolones.