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Adaptive Changes in Basal Metabolic Rate in Humans in Different Eco-Geographical Areas.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271453
Source
Coll Antropol. 2015 Dec;39(4):887-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2015
Author
Arkady L Maximov
Victor Sh Belkin
Leonid Kalichman
Eugene D Kobyliansky
Source
Coll Antropol. 2015 Dec;39(4):887-92
Date
Dec-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acclimatization - physiology
Animals
Basal Metabolism - physiology
Egypt
Environment
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel
Abstract
Our aim was to establish whether the human basal metabolic rate (BMR) shifts towards the reduction of vital functions as an adaptation response to extreme environmental conditions. Data was collected in arid and Extreme North zones. The arid zone samples included Bedouins living in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, Turkmen students, the Pedagogical University of Chardzhou, Turkmenistan born Russians and Russian soldiers. Soldiers were divided into 3 groups according to the length of their tour of duty in the area: 1st group: up to six months, 2nd group: up to 2 years and the 3rd group: 3-5 years. The Extreme North samples comprised Chukchi natives, 1st generation Russian immigrants born in the area and 3 groups of soldiers comparable to the soldiers from Turkmenistan. BMR values of the new recruits had the highest values of total and relative BMR (1769 ± 16 and 28.3 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The total and relative BMR tended to decrease within a longer adaptation period. The BMR values of officers who served >3 years in Turkmenistan were very similar to the Turkmenistan born Russians (1730 ± 14 vs. 1726 ± 18 and 26.5 ± 0.6 vs. 27.3 ± 0.7, correspondingly). Similarly, in Chukotka, the highest relative BMR was found in the new recruits, serving up to 6 months (28.1 ± 0.7) and was significantly (p 3 years, compared to the middle-aged Chukchi or Chukotka-born Russians (25.8 ± 0.5 vs. 25.6 ± 0.5 and 25.5 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The BMR parameters demonstrated a stronger association with body weight than with age. In extreme environmental conditions, migrant populations showed a decrease in BMR, thus reducing its vital functions. The BMR reduction effect with the adequate adaptive transformation is likely to be the key strategy for developing programs to facilitate human and animal adaptation to extreme factors. This process is aimed at preserving the optimum energy balance and homeostasis while minimizing stress on the body's vital functions.
PubMed ID
26987156 View in PubMed
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An outbreak of coxsackievirus B infection followed by one case of diabetes mellitus.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature48880
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1985;17(1):15-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
1985
Author
B S Niklasson
M J Dobersen
C J Peters
W H Ennis
E. Möller
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1985;17(1):15-8
Date
1985
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Coxsackievirus Infections - complications - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - etiology - genetics
Disease Outbreaks
Disease Susceptibility
Egypt
Enterovirus B, Human
HLA-DR3 Antigen
HLA-DR4 Antigen
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
Humans
Male
Military Medicine
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sweden - ethnology
Abstract
During the fall of 1979, 22/250 Swedish UN soldiers serving in Egypt were hospitalized with fever and gastroenteritis associated with aseptic meningitis. One of the 22 developed insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) 10 weeks following the infection. The majority of the 22 patients showed significant titer rise for coxsackievirus B by plaque reduction neutralization test. The serology results indicate that coxsackievirus B4 most likely caused the outbreak. All 22 were also tested for islet cell cytoplasmic antibodies and islet cell surface antibodies and found negative. The individual developing diabetes mellitus had the HLA-DR phenotype 3,4, which is associated with IDDM.
PubMed ID
2986280 View in PubMed
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An OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli isolated from a Danish patient with no hospitalization abroad.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272600
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2015 Aug;47(8):593-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Anne Gedebjerg
Henrik Hasman
Christian Møller Sørensen
Mikala Wang
Source
Infect Dis (Lond). 2015 Aug;47(8):593-5
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark
Drug Resistance, Bacterial - genetics
Egypt
Escherichia coli - enzymology - genetics - isolation & purification
Escherichia coli Infections - microbiology
Escherichia coli Proteins - biosynthesis
Female
Genome, Bacterial
Hospitalization
Humans
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Middle Aged
Plasmids
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Travel
Turkey
beta-Lactamases - biosynthesis
Abstract
Carbapenemase-producing organisms are disseminating globally and are now emerging as a worrying threat in Scandinavia. Before August 2013, OXA-48-producing organisms had not been detected in Danish patients. Here we report the isolation of an ST746 OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli with the plasmid pOXA-48a carrying the blaOXA-48 gene isolated from a Danish patient without history of hospitalization abroad. The patient reported tourist travel to Egypt and Turkey. The potential acquisition of carbapenemase-producing organisms by ingestion of contaminated food is discussed.
PubMed ID
25751777 View in PubMed
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Antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in Swedish U.N. soldiers in Egypt and the Sinai.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature57040
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1979;11(4):313-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
1979
Author
B. Niklasson
J M Meegan
E. Bengtsson
Source
Scand J Infect Dis. 1979;11(4):313-4
Date
1979
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Antibodies, Viral - analysis
Arboviruses - immunology
Egypt
Hemagglutination inhibition tests
Humans
Israel
Male
Military Medicine
Rift Valley Fever - epidemiology - immunology
Rift Valley fever virus - immunology
Sweden - ethnology
United Nations
Abstract
Swedish United Nations Emergency Forces soldiers serving in Egypt and the Sinai peninsula were serologically tested for hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Eight of 170 were positive. RVF has not been reported outside Africa, and a survey of 500 Swedish soldiers who had not served in the Middle East or Africa revealed no RVF virus antibodies. There were extensive RVF epidemics in Egypt in 1977 and 1978, and it is considered that these serologically positive soldiers contracted RVF disease while on duty in the Middle East.
PubMed ID
575230 View in PubMed
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Antibody against hepatitis A in Saudi Arabians and in expatriates from various parts of the world working in Saudi Arabia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature39282
Source
J Infect. 1986 Mar;12(2):153-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1986
Author
S. Ramia
Source
J Infect. 1986 Mar;12(2):153-5
Date
Mar-1986
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Blood Donors
Child
Child, Preschool
Comparative Study
Egypt - ethnology
Female
Great Britain - ethnology
Hepatitis A - epidemiology - immunology
Hepatitis A Antibodies
Hepatitis Antibodies - analysis
Hepatovirus - immunology
Humans
Immunoglobulin G - analysis
Immunoglobulin M - analysis
Infant
Male
Philippines - ethnology
Reagent kits, diagnostic
Saudi Arabia
Sweden - ethnology
Yemen - ethnology
Abstract
The age-specific rate of exposure to hepatitis A virus (HAV) was studied in 1015 native Saudi Arabians (504 males, 511 females) from the Riyadh area. The relatively high prevalence of antibody to HAV (anti-HAV) (38.6%) in children between 1 and 4 years of age indicates that infection is acquired early in life in the Saudi Arabian population. The prevalence of anti-HAV was found to increase steadily so that by the age of 30 years 91.0% of Saudi Arabians have anti-HAV. The prevalence in adult Saudi Arabians was compared with that in expatriates from various parts of the world working in Saudi Arabia. It was lowest among Swedish (10.7-12.3%) and highest among Yemeni (94.5%) blood donors while British blood donors were intermediate same among Saudi Arabian, Yemeni, Egyptian and Filipino blood donors (91.0-94.5%). All the donors tested were of the same age group (20-35 years).
PubMed ID
3009629 View in PubMed
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Association of Health Status and Health Behaviors with Weight Satisfaction vs. Body Image Concern: Analysis of 5888 Undergraduates in Egypt, Palestine, and Finland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature308000
Source
Nutrients. 2019 Nov 21; 11(12):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-21-2019
Author
Walid El Ansari
Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff
Author Affiliation
Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha 3050, Qatar.
Source
Nutrients. 2019 Nov 21; 11(12):
Date
Nov-21-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Body Image - psychology
Body Weight - physiology
Egypt
Exercise - physiology
Female
Finland
Health Behavior - physiology
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle East
Personal Satisfaction
Students - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Universities
Young Adult
Abstract
Little is known about the relationships between weight satisfaction, body image concern, healthy nutrition, health awareness, and physical activity among college students across culturally different countries. We assessed country and sex-specific associations between health status (self-rated health, depression, BMI), healthy behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activity, health awareness), weight satisfaction, and body image concern via a cross-sectional survey (5888 undergraduates) in Egypt, Palestine, and Finland. This health and wellbeing survey employed identical self-administered paper questionnaires administered at several Universities in two Eastern Mediterranean countries (Egypt, Palestine-Gaza Strip), and an online-survey comprising the same questions in Finland. Regression analyses were employed. Health status variables exhibited the strongest associations; high BMI and more depressive symptoms were more often among students satisfied with their weight (except in Palestine), but they were positively associated with body image concern irrespective of country or gender. Self-rated health was not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Healthy behaviors were not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Depressive symptoms and BMI were the most prominent predictors for body image concern. There were country-specific consistent results when using the body image concern score. Further research is necessary to compare body image across different cultures and countries.
PubMed ID
31766557 View in PubMed
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Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115583
Source
Lancet. 2013 Apr 6;381(9873):1211-22
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-6-2013
Author
Randall C Thompson
Adel H Allam
Guido P Lombardi
L Samuel Wann
M Linda Sutherland
James D Sutherland
Muhammad Al-Tohamy Soliman
Bruno Frohlich
David T Mininberg
Janet M Monge
Clide M Vallodolid
Samantha L Cox
Gomaa Abd el-Maksoud
Ibrahim Badr
Michael I Miyamoto
Abd el-Halim Nur el-Din
Jagat Narula
Caleb E Finch
Gregory S Thomas
Author Affiliation
Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute, and University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA. rthompson@saint-lukes.org
Source
Lancet. 2013 Apr 6;381(9873):1211-22
Date
Apr-6-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Alaska - ethnology
Atherosclerosis - ethnology - history
Egypt - ethnology
Female
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
History, Ancient
History, Medieval
Humans
Male
Mummies - pathology
Peru - ethnology
Southwestern United States - ethnology
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Vascular Calcification - ethnology - history
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modern human beings and related to contemporary lifestyles. However, its prevalence before the modern era is unknown. We aimed to evaluate preindustrial populations for atherosclerosis.
We obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions or populations spanning more than 4000 years. Individuals from ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands were imaged. Atherosclerosis was regarded as definite if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery.
Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations: 29 (38%) of 76 ancient Egyptians, 13 (25%) of 51 ancient Peruvians, two (40%) of five Ancestral Puebloans, and three (60%) of five Unangan hunter gatherers (p=NS). Atherosclerosis was present in the aorta in 28 (20%) mummies, iliac or femoral arteries in 25 (18%), popliteal or tibial arteries in 25 (18%), carotid arteries in 17 (12%), and coronary arteries in six (4%). Of the five vascular beds examined, atherosclerosis was present in one to two beds in 34 (25%) mummies, in three to four beds in 11 (8%), and in all five vascular beds in two (1%). Age at time of death was positively correlated with atherosclerosis (mean age at death was 43 [SD 10] years for mummies with atherosclerosis vs 32 [15] years for those without; p
Notes
Comment In: Bull Cancer. 2013 Jul-Aug;100(7-8):656-724063025
Comment In: Lancet. 2013 Apr 6;381(9873):115723561983
Comment In: Nat Rev Cardiol. 2013 May;10(5):24023528969
Comment In: Lancet. 2013 Jul 13;382(9887):12323849915
Comment In: Lancet. 2013 Jul 13;382(9887):123-423849914
Comment In: Lancet. 2013 Apr 6;381(9873):1165-623489749
PubMed ID
23489753 View in PubMed
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Bayesian coalescent inference of past population dynamics from molecular sequences.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature5636
Source
Mol Biol Evol. 2005 May;22(5):1185-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2005
Author
A J Drummond
A. Rambaut
B. Shapiro
O G Pybus
Author Affiliation
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. alexei.drummond@zoo.ox.ac.uk
Source
Mol Biol Evol. 2005 May;22(5):1185-92
Date
May-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Algorithms
Animals
Bayes Theorem
Bison - genetics
DNA, Mitochondrial - genetics
Egypt - epidemiology
Evolution, Molecular
Genetics, Population
Hepacivirus - genetics - pathogenicity
Hepatitis C - epidemiology - transmission
Humans
Markov Chains
Models, Genetic
Monte Carlo Method
Population Density
Population Dynamics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Time Factors
Abstract
We introduce the Bayesian skyline plot, a new method for estimating past population dynamics through time from a sample of molecular sequences without dependence on a prespecified parametric model of demographic history. We describe a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling procedure that efficiently samples a variant of the generalized skyline plot, given sequence data, and combines these plots to generate a posterior distribution of effective population size through time. We apply the Bayesian skyline plot to simulated data sets and show that it correctly reconstructs demographic history under canonical scenarios. Finally, we compare the Bayesian skyline plot model to previous coalescent approaches by analyzing two real data sets (hepatitis C virus in Egypt and mitochondrial DNA of Beringian bison) that have been previously investigated using alternative coalescent methods. In the bison analysis, we detect a severe but previously unrecognized bottleneck, estimated to have occurred 10,000 radiocarbon years ago, which coincides with both the earliest undisputed record of large numbers of humans in Alaska and the megafaunal extinctions in North America at the beginning of the Holocene.
PubMed ID
15703244 View in PubMed
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A bioarcheological study of maxillary sinusitis.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature78106
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Jun;133(2):792-807
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2007
Author
Roberts Charlotte A
Author Affiliation
Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK. c.a.roberts@durham.ac.uk
Source
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Jun;133(2):792-807
Date
Jun-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - history
Egypt - epidemiology
England - epidemiology
History, 15th Century
History, 16th Century
History, 17th Century
History, 18th Century
History, 19th Century
History, Medieval
Humans
Maxillary Sinus - anatomy & histology - pathology
Maxillary Sinusitis - epidemiology - history - pathology
North America - epidemiology
Paleopathology
Prevalence
Rural Population
Urban Population
Abstract
Maxillary sinusitis was studied as an indicator of poor air quality. Seven skeletal samples were examined from North America, England, and Nubia, and selected to represent different geographic locations, environments, and subsistence economies. Frequency rates varied from 17.2 to 51.5% of individuals affected with one or both sinuses preserved. Hardin Village had the highest frequency (51.5%), followed by the Aleuts (42.9%), "Illinois" (38.6%), Indian Knoll (38.5%), Kulubnarti (21.8%), Christchurch, Spitalfields (18.0%), and "South Dakota" (17.2%). Male frequencies ranged from 16.7 to 36.7%, but the female frequency ranged more widely from 18.0 to 76.5%. At most sites female rates exceeded male. The effect of urban and rural environment on sinusitis occurrence, and also subsistence economy, biological sex, and social status were explored, and comparative sites also considered; urban agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 48.5%, rural agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 45.0%, and hunter-gatherer sites had a mean frequency of 40.0%. In the urban sites male and female frequencies were near equal, but in the rural agricultural and hunter-gatherer sites female frequencies exceeded male frequencies. Dental disease was not found to have much impact on sinusitis frequency. The importance of the link between poor air quality and respiratory health is highlighted in clinical studies in both developed and developing countries, but also in bioarcheological studies.
PubMed ID
17427926 View in PubMed
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46 records – page 1 of 5.