Our aim was to establish whether the human basal metabolic rate (BMR) shifts towards the reduction of vital functions as an adaptation response to extreme environmental conditions. Data was collected in arid and Extreme North zones. The arid zone samples included Bedouins living in the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt, Turkmen students, the Pedagogical University of Chardzhou, Turkmenistan born Russians and Russian soldiers. Soldiers were divided into 3 groups according to the length of their tour of duty in the area: 1st group: up to six months, 2nd group: up to 2 years and the 3rd group: 3-5 years. The Extreme North samples comprised Chukchi natives, 1st generation Russian immigrants born in the area and 3 groups of soldiers comparable to the soldiers from Turkmenistan. BMR values of the new recruits had the highest values of total and relative BMR (1769 ± 16 and 28.3 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The total and relative BMR tended to decrease within a longer adaptation period. The BMR values of officers who served >3 years in Turkmenistan were very similar to the Turkmenistan born Russians (1730 ± 14 vs. 1726 ± 18 and 26.5 ± 0.6 vs. 27.3 ± 0.7, correspondingly). Similarly, in Chukotka, the highest relative BMR was found in the new recruits, serving up to 6 months (28.1 ± 0.7) and was significantly (p 3 years, compared to the middle-aged Chukchi or Chukotka-born Russians (25.8 ± 0.5 vs. 25.6 ± 0.5 and 25.5 ± 0.6, correspondingly). The BMR parameters demonstrated a stronger association with body weight than with age. In extreme environmental conditions, migrant populations showed a decrease in BMR, thus reducing its vital functions. The BMR reduction effect with the adequate adaptive transformation is likely to be the key strategy for developing programs to facilitate human and animal adaptation to extreme factors. This process is aimed at preserving the optimum energy balance and homeostasis while minimizing stress on the body's vital functions.
During the fall of 1979, 22/250 Swedish UN soldiers serving in Egypt were hospitalized with fever and gastroenteritis associated with aseptic meningitis. One of the 22 developed insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) 10 weeks following the infection. The majority of the 22 patients showed significant titer rise for coxsackievirus B by plaque reduction neutralization test. The serology results indicate that coxsackievirus B4 most likely caused the outbreak. All 22 were also tested for islet cell cytoplasmic antibodies and islet cell surface antibodies and found negative. The individual developing diabetes mellitus had the HLA-DR phenotype 3,4, which is associated with IDDM.
Carbapenemase-producing organisms are disseminating globally and are now emerging as a worrying threat in Scandinavia. Before August 2013, OXA-48-producing organisms had not been detected in Danish patients. Here we report the isolation of an ST746 OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli with the plasmid pOXA-48a carrying the blaOXA-48 gene isolated from a Danish patient without history of hospitalization abroad. The patient reported tourist travel to Egypt and Turkey. The potential acquisition of carbapenemase-producing organisms by ingestion of contaminated food is discussed.
Swedish United Nations Emergency Forces soldiers serving in Egypt and the Sinai peninsula were serologically tested for hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies to Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Eight of 170 were positive. RVF has not been reported outside Africa, and a survey of 500 Swedish soldiers who had not served in the Middle East or Africa revealed no RVF virus antibodies. There were extensive RVF epidemics in Egypt in 1977 and 1978, and it is considered that these serologically positive soldiers contracted RVF disease while on duty in the Middle East.
The age-specific rate of exposure to hepatitis A virus (HAV) was studied in 1015 native Saudi Arabians (504 males, 511 females) from the Riyadh area. The relatively high prevalence of antibody to HAV (anti-HAV) (38.6%) in children between 1 and 4 years of age indicates that infection is acquired early in life in the Saudi Arabian population. The prevalence of anti-HAV was found to increase steadily so that by the age of 30 years 91.0% of Saudi Arabians have anti-HAV. The prevalence in adult Saudi Arabians was compared with that in expatriates from various parts of the world working in Saudi Arabia. It was lowest among Swedish (10.7-12.3%) and highest among Yemeni (94.5%) blood donors while British blood donors were intermediate same among Saudi Arabian, Yemeni, Egyptian and Filipino blood donors (91.0-94.5%). All the donors tested were of the same age group (20-35 years).
Little is known about the relationships between weight satisfaction, body image concern, healthy nutrition, health awareness, and physical activity among college students across culturally different countries. We assessed country and sex-specific associations between health status (self-rated health, depression, BMI), healthy behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activity, health awareness), weight satisfaction, and body image concern via a cross-sectional survey (5888 undergraduates) in Egypt, Palestine, and Finland. This health and wellbeing survey employed identical self-administered paper questionnaires administered at several Universities in two Eastern Mediterranean countries (Egypt, Palestine-Gaza Strip), and an online-survey comprising the same questions in Finland. Regression analyses were employed. Health status variables exhibited the strongest associations; high BMI and more depressive symptoms were more often among students satisfied with their weight (except in Palestine), but they were positively associated with body image concern irrespective of country or gender. Self-rated health was not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Healthy behaviors were not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Depressive symptoms and BMI were the most prominent predictors for body image concern. There were country-specific consistent results when using the body image concern score. Further research is necessary to compare body image across different cultures and countries.
Atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modern human beings and related to contemporary lifestyles. However, its prevalence before the modern era is unknown. We aimed to evaluate preindustrial populations for atherosclerosis.
We obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions or populations spanning more than 4000 years. Individuals from ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands were imaged. Atherosclerosis was regarded as definite if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery.
Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations: 29 (38%) of 76 ancient Egyptians, 13 (25%) of 51 ancient Peruvians, two (40%) of five Ancestral Puebloans, and three (60%) of five Unangan hunter gatherers (p=NS). Atherosclerosis was present in the aorta in 28 (20%) mummies, iliac or femoral arteries in 25 (18%), popliteal or tibial arteries in 25 (18%), carotid arteries in 17 (12%), and coronary arteries in six (4%). Of the five vascular beds examined, atherosclerosis was present in one to two beds in 34 (25%) mummies, in three to four beds in 11 (8%), and in all five vascular beds in two (1%). Age at time of death was positively correlated with atherosclerosis (mean age at death was 43 [SD 10] years for mummies with atherosclerosis vs 32  years for those without; p
We introduce the Bayesian skyline plot, a new method for estimating past population dynamics through time from a sample of molecular sequences without dependence on a prespecified parametric model of demographic history. We describe a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling procedure that efficiently samples a variant of the generalized skyline plot, given sequence data, and combines these plots to generate a posterior distribution of effective population size through time. We apply the Bayesian skyline plot to simulated data sets and show that it correctly reconstructs demographic history under canonical scenarios. Finally, we compare the Bayesian skyline plot model to previous coalescent approaches by analyzing two real data sets (hepatitis C virus in Egypt and mitochondrial DNA of Beringian bison) that have been previously investigated using alternative coalescent methods. In the bison analysis, we detect a severe but previously unrecognized bottleneck, estimated to have occurred 10,000 radiocarbon years ago, which coincides with both the earliest undisputed record of large numbers of humans in Alaska and the megafaunal extinctions in North America at the beginning of the Holocene.
Maxillary sinusitis was studied as an indicator of poor air quality. Seven skeletal samples were examined from North America, England, and Nubia, and selected to represent different geographic locations, environments, and subsistence economies. Frequency rates varied from 17.2 to 51.5% of individuals affected with one or both sinuses preserved. Hardin Village had the highest frequency (51.5%), followed by the Aleuts (42.9%), "Illinois" (38.6%), Indian Knoll (38.5%), Kulubnarti (21.8%), Christchurch, Spitalfields (18.0%), and "South Dakota" (17.2%). Male frequencies ranged from 16.7 to 36.7%, but the female frequency ranged more widely from 18.0 to 76.5%. At most sites female rates exceeded male. The effect of urban and rural environment on sinusitis occurrence, and also subsistence economy, biological sex, and social status were explored, and comparative sites also considered; urban agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 48.5%, rural agricultural sites had a mean frequency of 45.0%, and hunter-gatherer sites had a mean frequency of 40.0%. In the urban sites male and female frequencies were near equal, but in the rural agricultural and hunter-gatherer sites female frequencies exceeded male frequencies. Dental disease was not found to have much impact on sinusitis frequency. The importance of the link between poor air quality and respiratory health is highlighted in clinical studies in both developed and developing countries, but also in bioarcheological studies.