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25-year analysis of a dental undergraduate research training program (BSc Dent) at the University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154080
Source
J Dent Res. 2008 Dec;87(12):1085-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
J E Scott
J. de Vries
A M Iacopino
Author Affiliation
Oral Biology, University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry, Winnipeg, Canada.
Source
J Dent Res. 2008 Dec;87(12):1085-8
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aptitude Tests
Career Choice
Cohort Studies
Curriculum
Decision Making
Dental Research - education - trends
Education, Dental - trends
Education, Dental, Graduate - trends
Educational Measurement
Evidence-Based Dentistry - education
Faculty, Dental
Humans
Manitoba
Program Development
Schools, Dental - trends
Students, Dental
Abstract
Research in the context of the dental school has traditionally been focused on institutional/faculty accomplishments and generating new knowledge to benefit the profession. Only recently have significant efforts been made to expand the overall research programming into the formal dental curriculum, to provide students with a baseline exposure to the research and critical thinking processes, encourage evidence-based decision-making, and stimulate interest in academic/research careers. Various approaches to curriculum reform and the establishment of multiple levels of student research opportunities are now part of the educational fabric of many dental schools worldwide. Many of the preliminary reports regarding the success and vitality of these programs have used outcomes measures and metrics that emphasize cultural changes within institutions, student research productivity, and student career preferences after graduation. However, there have not been any reports from long-standing programs (a minimum of 25 years of cumulative data) that describe dental school graduates who have had the benefit of research/training experiences during their dental education. The University of Manitoba Faculty of Dentistry initiated a BSc Dent program in 1980 that awarded a formal degree for significant research experiences taking place within the laboratories of the Faculty-based researchers and has continued to develop and expand this program. The success of the program has been demonstrated by the continued and increasing demands for entry, the academic achievements of the graduates, and the numbers of graduates who have completed advanced education/training programs or returned to the Faculty as instructors. Analysis of our long-term data validates many recent hypotheses and short-term observations regarding the benefits of dental student research programs. This information may be useful in the design and implementation of dental student research programs at other dental schools.
PubMed ID
19029073 View in PubMed
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Academic performance in adolescents with delayed sleep phase.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273720
Source
Sleep Med. 2015 Sep;16(9):1084-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2015
Author
Børge Sivertsen
Nick Glozier
Allison G Harvey
Mari Hysing
Source
Sleep Med. 2015 Sep;16(9):1084-90
Date
Sep-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Educational Measurement
Female
Humans
Life Style
Male
Norway
Self Report
Sleep Wake Disorders - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Delayed sleep phase (DSP) in adolescence has been linked to reduced academic performance, but there are few population-based studies examining this association using validated sleep measures and objective outcomes.
The youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, surveyed 8347 high-school students aged 16-19 years (54% girls). DSP was assessed by self-report sleep measures, and it was operationalized according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders - Second Edition. School performance (grade point average, GPA) was obtained from official administrative registries, and it was linked individually to health data.
DSP was associated with increased odds for poor school performance. After adjusting for age and gender, DSP was associated with a threefold increased odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile) [odds ratio (OR)?=?2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.03-4.30], and adjustment for sociodemographics and lifestyle factors did not, or only slightly, attenuate this association. Adjustment for nonattendance at school reduced the association substantially, and in the fully adjusted model, the effect of DSP on poor academic performance was reduced to a non-significant level. Mediation analyses confirmed both direct and significant indirect effects of DSP on school performance based on school absence, daytime sleepiness, and sleep duration.
Poor academic performance may reflect an independent effect of underlying circadian disruption, which in part could be mediated by school attendance, as well as daytime sleepiness and short sleep duration. This suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted in addressing educational difficulties.
PubMed ID
26298783 View in PubMed
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Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence: A Danish national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265765
Source
Horm Behav. 2015 Mar;69:123-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2015
Author
Linda Ahrenfeldt
Inge Petersen
Wendy Johnson
Kaare Christensen
Source
Horm Behav. 2015 Mar;69:123-31
Date
Mar-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Androgens - blood
Cognition - physiology
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Measurement - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Perception - physiology
Psychology, Adolescent
Sex Characteristics
Testosterone - blood
Twins - psychology
Twins, Dizygotic - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
Testosterone is an important hormone in the sexual differentiation of the brain, contributing to differences in cognitive abilities between males and females. For instance, studies in clinical populations such as females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) who are exposed to high levels of androgens in utero support arguments for prenatal testosterone effects on characteristics such as visuospatial cognition and behaviour. The comparison of opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twin pairs can be used to help establish the role of prenatal testosterone. However, although some twin studies confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33-.49 SD), English (.20 SD), and neatness (.45-.64 SD). However, we did not find that OS females performed better in mathematics than SS and singleton females, nor did they perform worse either in Danish or English. Scores for OS and SS males were similar in all topics. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25655669 View in PubMed
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Academic skills in children with early-onset type 1 diabetes: the effects of diabetes-related risk factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124345
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):457-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2012
Author
Riitta Hannonen
Jorma Komulainen
Raili Riikonen
Timo Ahonen
Kenneth Eklund
Asko Tolvanen
Päivi Keskinen
Anja Nuuja
Author Affiliation
Department of Child Neurology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Carea, Kotkantie 41, Kotka, Finland. riitta.hannonen@carea.fi
Source
Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):457-63
Date
May-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Child
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 - diagnosis - therapy
Diabetic Ketoacidosis - diagnosis
Early Diagnosis
Educational Measurement
Female
Finland
Hospitals
Humans
Hypoglycemia - diagnosis
Learning Disorders - diagnosis
Male
Mathematics
Risk factors
Abstract
The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia,on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9 y 11 mo,SD 4 mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40 females, 52 males;mean age 9 y 9 mo,SD 3 mo). Children were included if T1DM had been diagnosed before the age of 5 years and if they were aged between 9 and 10 years at the time of study. Children were not included if their native language was not Finnish and if they had a diagnosed neurological disorder that affected their cognitive development. Among the T1DM group, 37 had and 26 had not experienced severe hypoglycaemia and 26 had avoided severe hypoglycaemia. Severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA), and glycaemic control were used as T1DM-related factors. Task performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was compared among the three groups, and the effects of the T1DM-related factors were analysed with general linear models.
The groups with (p
Notes
Comment In: Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):393-422590722
PubMed ID
22590723 View in PubMed
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Academic success across the transition from primary to secondary schooling among lower-income adolescents: understanding the effects of family resources and gender.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108330
Source
J Youth Adolesc. 2013 Sep;42(9):1331-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2013
Author
Lisa A Serbin
Dale M Stack
Danielle Kingdon
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Centre for Research in Human Development, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke Street West PY-170, Montreal, QC, H4B 1R6, Canada. Lisa.Serbin@Concordia.CA
Source
J Youth Adolesc. 2013 Sep;42(9):1331-47
Date
Sep-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adolescent Psychology
Child
Educational Measurement
Family
Female
Humans
Income
Interviews as Topic
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Psychological
Models, Statistical
Parent-Child Relations
Poverty
Prospective Studies
Psychological Theory
Quebec
Questionnaires
Regression Analysis
Risk factors
Schools
Sex Factors
Abstract
Successful academic performance during adolescence is a key predictor of lifetime achievement, including occupational and social success. The present study investigated the important transition from primary to secondary schooling during early adolescence, when academic performance among youth often declines. The goal of the study was to understand how risk factors, specifically lower family resources and male gender, threaten academic success following this "critical transition" in schooling. The study involved a longitudinal examination of the predictors of academic performance in grades 7-8 among 127 (56 % girls) French-speaking Quebec (Canada) adolescents from lower-income backgrounds. As hypothesized based on transition theory, hierarchical regression analyses showed that supportive parenting and specific academic, social and behavioral competencies (including spelling ability, social skills, and lower levels of attention problems) predicted success across this transition among at-risk youth. Multiple-mediation procedures demonstrated that the set of compensatory factors fully mediated the negative impact of lower family resources on academic success in grades 7-8. Unique mediators (social skills, spelling ability, supportive parenting) also were identified. In addition, the "gender gap" in performance across the transition could be attributed statistically to differences between boys and girls in specific competencies observed prior to the transition, as well as differential parenting (i.e., support from mother) towards girls and boys. The present results contribute to our understanding of the processes by which established risk factors, such as low family income and gender impact development and academic performance during early adolescence. These "transitional" processes and subsequent academic performance may have consequences across adolescence and beyond, with an impact on lifetime patterns of achievement and occupational success.
PubMed ID
23904002 View in PubMed
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The acceptability of the multiple mini interview for resident selection.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154455
Source
Fam Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;40(10):734-40
Publication Type
Article
Author
Marianna Hofmeister
Jocelyn Lockyer
Rod Crutcher
Author Affiliation
University of Calgary, Health Research Centre, Calgary, Alberta. mlhofmei@ucalgary.ca
Source
Fam Med. 2008 Nov-Dec;40(10):734-40
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alberta
Canada
Education, Medical, Graduate - standards
Educational Measurement
Female
Humans
Internship and Residency - standards
Interview, Psychological
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Psychological Tests
Psychometrics
United States
Abstract
This study describes and assesses the acceptability of the multiple mini interview (MMI) to both international medical graduate (IMG) applicants to family medicine residency training in Alberta, Canada, and also interviewers for Alberta's International Medical Graduate Program (AIMGP), an Alberta Health and Wellness government initiative designed to help integrate IMGs into Canadian residency training. IMGs are physicians who completed undergraduate medical education outside of Canada and the United States. IMGs who live in the Canadian province of Alberta may obtain a limited number of government-funded positions for residency training by applying to AIMGP.
A literature review and faculty and medical community consultation informed the development of a 12-station MMI designed to identify non-cognitive characteristics associated with professionalism potential. Clinical scenarios were developed by family physicians and medical educators. Applicant and interviewer posttest acceptability was assessed using surveys. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and thematic description.
Our research demonstrates evidence for applicant and interviewer acceptability of the MMI. Interviewers reported high levels of satisfaction with the time-restricted process that addressed multiple situations pertinent to the Canadian family medicine context. Applicants and interviewers were each satisfied that 8 minutes was enough time at each station. Applicants reported that they felt the process was free from gender and cultural bias. Interviewers agreed that this MMI was a fair assessment of potential for family medicine.
Standardized residency selection interviews can be adapted to measure professionalism potential characteristics important to family medicine in ways that are acceptable to IMG applicants and interviewers.
PubMed ID
18979262 View in PubMed
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[A controlled study of the short-term and long-term effects of a "train the trainers" course--secondary publication].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154394
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Oct 27;170(44):3553-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-27-2008
Author
Sune Rubak
Lene Mortensen
Charlotte Ringsted
Bente Malling
Author Affiliation
Arhus Universitetshospital, Skejby, Paediatrisk Afdeling, Viborg Hospital, Medicinsk Afdeling, og Aarhus Universitet, Center for Medicinsk Uddannelse. sr@alm.au.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Oct 27;170(44):3553-6
Date
Oct-27-2008
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Case-Control Studies
Clinical Competence
Denmark
Education, Medical, Graduate - methods
Educational Measurement
Feedback
Humans
Internal Medicine - education
Learning
Orthopedics - education
Professional Competence
Questionnaires
Teaching - methods
Abstract
This is an intervention-study discussing the long-term effects of a 3-day "Train the trainers course" (TTC). In the intervention (I) group 98.4% of doctors participated in a TTC, both specialists and trainees. Knowledge about teaching skills increased in the I group by 25% after the TTC; a result which was sustained at six months. Teaching behaviour was significantly changed as the use of feedback and supervision had increased from a score of 4 to 6 (max. score = 9).
A 3-day residential TTC has a significant impact on knowledge gain concerning teaching skills, teaching behaviour and clinical learning culture after six months.
PubMed ID
18985941 View in PubMed
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Acting at a disaster site: views expressed by Swedish nursing students.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature73369
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1993 Apr;18(4):613-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1993
Author
B O Suserud
Author Affiliation
Boras College of Health and Caring Sciences, Sweden.
Source
J Adv Nurs. 1993 Apr;18(4):613-20
Date
Apr-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Attitude of Health Personnel
Curriculum
Disaster Planning - organization & administration - standards
Education, Nursing - methods - standards
Educational Measurement
Female
Humans
Job Description
Middle Aged
Nursing Education Research
Patient care team
Students, Nursing - psychology
Sweden
Abstract
There is a common interest in Swedish society in preparing nurses well for disasters. A special course in the basic nurse education programme is devoted to disaster nursing. The aim of this study is to investigate nursing students' knowledge and views of their own action at the disaster site, both in their professional role and as private persons. The present study is a descriptive one based on the students' written answers. The result shows that the students emphasize contacting the overall disaster officer, surveying the situation and carrying out basic life-saving measures in Sweden known as the ABCs. They also stress the importance of staying calm and, to a lesser extent, seeing to the needs of the mentally shocked. Thus the nursing students seem to regard treatment of physical injuries as most important in the disaster situation.
PubMed ID
8496509 View in PubMed
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776 records – page 1 of 78.