In 2006, the Indian Health Service (IHS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) collaborated to develop an interdisciplinary palliative training program for health professionals in the Indian health system. Their goal was to improve clinician knowledge and skills in palliative care, to train future trainers, and to increase access to palliative care for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The combined program of participant self-study utilizing a multimedia CD-ROM and train-the-trainer seminars followed the curriculum entitled Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology (EPEC-O) with American Indian and Alaska Native Cultural Considerations. Three seminars trained 89 interdisciplinary health providers from throughout the Indian health system. Evaluations demonstrated increased clinician self-reported knowledge and confidence to train and high satisfaction with training. Forty-two of 67 participants completed an anonymous post-conference Web questionnaire. Nearly half had conducted or definitively planned palliative education sessions, and 57 percent started new palliative services at their practice sites.
Personnel shortages are evident for a number of disciplines in the health professions, from physicians to nurses. Project CRISTAL (Collaborative Rural Interdisciplinary Service Training and Learning) was designed to immerse students in rural and reservation communities and encourage them to consider practicing in locations that have shortages of health care providers. Students gain an understanding of the importance of working as part of a health care team and address present and future health care workforce shortages. The project was also structured to help students develop the necessary skills to become culturally-sensitive providers. Working relationships among higher education institutions, health care facilities, and reservation communities were enhanced. Additionally, a culturally-appropriate, team-oriented curriculum for reservation settings was developed. Experiences gained from the North Dakota project provide valuable insight into interprofessional health training and health issues of American Indian populations.
To undertake a systematic literature review to determine the scope, rationales, and evaluation foci of indigenous health curricula included in university-based professional training of health care service providers.
We searched the Australasian Medical Index, ATSIhealth (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Bibliography), CINAHL PLUS, MEDLINE, SCOPUS version 4, and Web of Science databases using relevant keywords. Our initial search identified 1247 articles and our refined search identified 57 articles. Thirty-six articles published between 1999 and 2011 that referred to indigenous health-related curricula within university health science courses were selected for review.
While almost all the articles were explicit that improving indigenous health was an aim of their curriculum, none evaluated the impact of curricula on patient outcomes.
There appears to be a widespread assumption in the literature that improving practitioner skills, knowledge and attitudes will lead to improvements in indigenous health outcomes. The literature showed evidence of efforts towards evaluating learner (student) outcomes, but no evidence of evaluation of patient outcomes. We need to begin to design methods that focus on evaluating the impacts of indigenous health curricula on patient outcomes, while continuing to investigate the impact of curricula on learner outcomes.
We have conducted a telemedicine project between two of Norway's largest hospitals (Rikshospitalet and Ullevål Hospital) with a focus on image-guided surgical and radiological procedures. Video was broadcast using a 34 Mbit/s ATM network. This resulted in changes in the local work practice to accommodate and facilitate the communication. It also required changes to the surgeon's tasks to improve communication with remote viewers. These changes were not trivial and can be viewed as signs of a shift towards a more public kind of surgery and interventional radiology, brought about by new technology.
The authors studied the specific features of adaptation in a heterogeneous cohort of pupils (final-year pupils of common, compensating education classes and those of auxiliary schools) to the conditions of varying-level vocational training in building professions. The physiological cost of a learning process, which was associated with the volume and nature of a training load, was shown to be high. The functional capacities of different cohorts of pupils were comparatively assessed on the basis of the common integral index of mental performance, which offered more objective possibilities of hygienically substantiating the volume of an educational load. There was evidence that it was necessary to correct the total educational load in all forms of training, by taking into account a 5-day schooling week, the age of pupils and their capabilities. It was established that there was a need for improving work on pupils' health care, having regard to great differences available in the health status of final-year pupils from different types of educational establishments, contraindications to profession familiarization, the high spread of social and behavioral risk factors, and the influence of schooling and training factors.
Key members (a.k.a. "champions") within specific work units were provided with a brief training session designed to increase awareness of the benefits associated with influenza vaccination. The champions were responsible for encouraging members of their work units to accept an influenza vaccination and in some cases had the requisite training to administer the vaccination on site. Work units were randomly assigned to either champion present or champion absent conditions. Results show increased vaccination compliance for groups where a champion was present (N = 23). An independent sample t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups t = 2.30, p
Abstract Management programs have become a popular method to develop future leaders. There is, however, a lack of controlled studies assessing the long-term effects of such programs on participants' career development, organizational influence, and mental and physical well-being. The aim of this prospective, controlled study was to assess the possible impact from 3 different structured management development programs on the individual and organizational well-being of female physicians. One year after the end of the 1-year intervention program, the intervention group reported statistically significant improvements in ratings of organizational influence, management feed back, perception of the organizational leadership, contact with one's immediate supervisor, and personal skills development as compared with the reference group. There were no statistically significant differences, however, between the groups with regard to individual health and well-being or career development. These results give rise to many questions, both concerning the effects of these 3 management programs and the career possibilities for female physicians.