Canada does not have enough aboriginal nurses and aboriginal nursing faculty. Consequently, there is an inadequate number of nurses to meet both on- and off-reserve and community health care staffing needs. In 2002, Health Canada asked the Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing to facilitate a national task force that would examine aboriginal nursing in Canada. The task force engaged in an extensive literature review, conducted a national survey of nursing programs, and explored recruitment and retention strategies. In 2007, the association prepared an update on the current status. In this article, the authors review the progress made during the intervening five years in the recruitment, retention and education of aboriginal nursing students.
Changes in the delivery of health care and changes in population characteristics and health care requirements mandate changing requirements in nursing education. This is necessary to meet patient and family needs and to deliver quality health care. This paper describes the background to nursing education in the Nordic countries and gives an account of an initiative in Norway to prepare advanced practice nurses for clinical practice in this dynamic environment.
Retention and recruitment strategies are essential to address nursing workforce supply and ensure the viability of healthcare delivery in Canada. Knowledge transfer between experienced nurses and those new to the profession is also a focus for concern. The Multi-Employer/United Nurses of Alberta Joint Committee attempted to address these issues by introducing a number of retention and recruitment (R&R) initiatives for nurses in Alberta: in total, seven different programs that were introduced to some 24,000 nurses and employers across the province of Alberta in 2001 (the Transitional Graduate Nurse Recruitment Program) and 2007 (the remaining six R&R programs). Approximately 1,600 nurses participated in the seven programs between 2001 and 2009. Of the seven strategies, one supported entry into the workplace, two were pre-retirement strategies and four involved flexible work options. This project entailed a retrospective evaluation of the seven programs and differed from the other Research to Action (RTA) projects because it was solely concerned with evaluation of pre-existing initiatives. All seven programs were launched without a formal evaluation component, and the tracking of local uptake varied throughout the province. The union and various employers faced challenges in implementing these strategies in a timely fashion, as most were designed at the bargaining table during negotiations. As a result, systems, policy and procedural changes had to be developed to support their implementation after they became available.Participants in the programs indicated improvements over time in several areas, including higher levels of satisfaction with work–life balance, hours worked and their current practice and profession. The evaluation found that participation led to perceived improvements in nurses' confidence, greater control over their work environment, decreased stress levels, increased energy and morale and perceived improved ability to provide high-quality care. However, no formal implementation plan had been developed or made available to assist employers with implementation of the programs. The findings highlight the need for more discipline in communicating, implementing and evaluating initiatives such as those evaluated retrospectively in this project. In particular, key performance indicators, baseline data, monitoring mechanisms and an evaluation plan need to be developed prior to implementation.
What is the potential of courses designed for nursing students to meet the learning priorities of other disciplines? Who could benefit? Nursing students at Brandon University interested in the 'community as client' concept requested a course that focused on the health of rural residents and the communities in which they live. Questions about (1) measuring the health of rural populations; (2) comparing health status, health resources and health care utilization of rural and urban populations; and (3) determining the health of rural communities emerged. As a result the course, 'Health of Rural Populations and Communities', was created. The Director of the Rural Development Institute examined the syllabus for the new course and asked that Rural Development students be allowed to enroll. This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities for nursing education to address learning needs of other disciplines by sharing health and nursing knowledge. In doing so the learning of nursing students is also advanced. The development and delivery of a rural health course is used as a case study to illustrate the potential of this approach for nursing and interdisciplinary education.
This position paper will: 1. Provide an update on relevant current developments in the education, training and positioning of clinician nurse scientists; 2. Provide and promote a rational argument for the development of the clinician nurse scientist role; and 3. Discuss issues related to capacity building in clinical research in neuroscience nursing, with specific reference to and support for the cerebrovascular (stroke) specialty nursing area.
Cardiovascular nursing (CVN) is rapidly developing and has accumulated a large amount of evidence to support interventions aimed at reducing suffering and hastening recovery. However, knowledge of the extent and content of CVN training in Sweden is lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to identify and describe CVN in the Swedish RN education as well as in higher education, with reference to type of course and credits, content, area and target group. A nationwide survey was carried out in Sweden at all university level nursing schools (N=26) by means of a 25-item questionnaire, which was analysed by descriptive statistics. The findings show that 69% and 23% of the schools awarded 0-1 credits [0-1.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS)] and 2-3 credits (3-4.5 ECTS), respectively for cardiology/CVN in the RN education. Target areas outside the hospital setting reported by 23% and 19% of nursing schools were primary health care and community care, respectively. Special target groups in addition to the general public were the elderly (42%) and women (58%). Advanced courses in CVN comprising 10-40 credits (15-60 ECTS) were held by 27% of nursing schools, but no school had a specialist or Master level education. Important educational implications from the study of the RN education are the establishment of a minimum credit figure and to reach out into primary health care.
In 1995, a 10-university consortium approach to deliver a post-baccalaureate primary care nurse practitioner programme funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health was launched throughout Ontario, Canada. A combination of traditional and distance teaching methods, in English and French, were used. A 5-year research project was initiated to evaluate the entire programme, the effect of nurse practitioners on patient and health-care system outcomes and examine practice patterns. Participants included deans and directors (n = 10), regional co-ordinators (n = 5) and course developers, some of whom were also course professors (n = 8). This article is a report of the evaluation of the consortium programme after the first year from the perspective of groups involved in implementation and delivery. Results of qualitative analyses of participant perceptions from researcher-led focus groups and asynchronous electronic interviews provided the framework for the evaluation, and revealed the rationale for the consortium method, strengths, limitations and recommendations. Sharing ideas, resources and delivery and increased student access in remote areas were perceived as positive outcomes. Limitations included the short time period to develop programme content, identify and plan for distance education resources, and too little communication between universities and students. Researchers concluded that the consortium approach was effective for nurse practitioner education. Key factors identified for programme planning were communication, resources, curriculum and workload. Included among the recommendations was to allow sufficient time for role and course development before beginning a similar programme.