University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Donald R. Wilson Centre for Research in Education, University Health Network, 200 Elizabeth Street, 1 Eaton South 565, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 Canada. email@example.com
The vision of the Wilson Centre for Research in Education at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, is "advancing health care education and practice through research." With a core staff of eight PhD researchers, five full-time administrative staff, 150 clinical faculty members, and over a dozen fellows and visiting professors from around the world, the Wilson Centre has become an international leader in health professional education research. Diversity of ideas and research methodologies, a culture of mutual support and mentorship, and strong support from both the university and a major teaching hospital have propelled the Wilson Centre. Challenges such as focusing research priorities, involving the clinical faculty more extensively, and defining productive international collaborations are among the current issues for academic planning.
The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the availability of death education, including teaching and evaluation methods, specific content areas, issues being addressed, and the background and expertise of the faculty members involved in teaching death and dying content. A questionnaire was developed based on the current literature and sent to 80 faculties of nursing and 36 faculties of medicine in Canada and the United Kingdom. The majority of nursing and medical schools that responded to the survey included death education, an integrated approach, through all years of their programs. Despite recent criticisms of Kubler-Ross's model of grieving, the majority of programs reported using her theory most frequently. The findings identify the current status of death education for health professionals in Canada and the United Kingdom, and implications for curriculum changes are discussed.
PURPOSE: During the last 15 years, the proportion of U.S. allopathic medical graduates planning to pursue alternative careers (other than full-time clinical practice) has been increasing. The authors sought to identify factors associated with contemporary medical graduates' career-setting plans. METHOD: The authors obtained anonymous data from the 108,408 U.S. allopathic medical graduates who completed the 1997-2004 national Association of American Medical Colleges Graduation Questionnaire (GQ). Using multinomial logistic regression, responses to eight GQ items regarding graduates' demographics, medical school characteristics, and specialty choice were tested in association with three career-setting plans (full-time university faculty; other, including government agencies, non-university-based research, or medical or health care administration; or undecided) compared with full-time (nonacademic) clinical practice. RESULTS: The sample included 94,101 (86.8% of 108,408) GQ respondents with complete data. From 1997 to 2004, the proportions of graduates planning full-time clinical practice careers decreased from 51.3% to 46.5%; the proportions selecting primary care and obstetrics-gynecology specialties also decreased. Graduates reporting Hispanic race/ethnicity or no response to race/ethnicity, lower debt, dual advanced degrees at graduation, and psychiatric-specialty choice were consistently more likely to plan to pursue alternative careers. Graduates selecting an obstetrics-gynecology specialty/ subspecialty were consistently less likely to plan to pursue alternative careers. Being female, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black or Native American/Alaskan, and selecting non-primary-care specialties were variably associated with alternative career plans. CONCLUSIONS: As the medical student population becomes more demographically diverse, as graduates increasingly select non-primary-care specialties, and as dual-degree-program graduates and alternative career opportunities for physicians expand, the proportion of U.S. graduates planning full-time clinical practice careers likely will continue to decline.
Health care in Canada is universal, accessible, transferable and publicly funded. Each of Canada's provinces has the responsibility for health care funding and delivery through its ministry of health, controlled by the governing provincial party and overseen by a Minister of Health. The Federal Government is responsible for ensuring the provinces conform to the spirit and regulations within the Canada Health Act and for broad programme funding, through the federal Minister of Health. As such, access to emergency health services is available to all Canadians free of direct charge. Some aspects of health care are the direct responsibility of citizens, such as ambulance services, medications (for those who can afford them), and 'non-essential' services. For most Canadians, however, care for acute illness and injury is provided without barriers in EDs while generalists such as family physicians and paediatricians provide primary care.
Comment In: Emerg Med Australas. 2004 Oct-Dec;16(5-6):387-9315537399
A substantial amount of resources available to the health services in Norway are spent on alcohol- and drug-related disorders. Physicians play an important role in preventing, diagnosing and treating these disorders. We have reviewed the curricula used at our four Norwegian medical schools for education in this field. The curricula are characterized by lack of specified educational goals and are somewhat limited, seen in relation to the extent of the alcohol- and drug-related problems. With reference to a structured educational programme at Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm, we propose a new Norwegian model for alcohol- and drug related medical education. This model focuses especially on early identification of problems and intervention in harmful alcohol consumption.
Information about the education, training and future employment prospects of Icelandic surgeons has not been available.
The study included all Icelandic surgeons, in all subspecialties, educated at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Iceland. Information on specialty training, higher academic degrees and in which country these were obtained was collected. Future employment prospects were analysed by calculating supply and demand until the year 2025. Approximations, such as sustained demand for surgeons per capita, were used.
Out of 237 licensed surgeons, two thirds were living in Iceland and 36 were retired. Majority (69.2%) had been trained in Sweden and orthopaedic (26.9%) and general surgery (23.9%) were the most common subspecialties. The average age of surgeons in Iceland was 52 years and 44 years for surgeons abroad. Females were 8% of surgeons in Iceland while being 17.4% among 36 doctors in surgical training overseas. Over 19% had received a PhD degree. Predictions suggest that supply and demand for surgeons in Iceland will be equal in the year 2025, not taking into account the prospects for the working market outside Iceland.
A third of Icelandic surgeons live outside Iceland. The proportion of female surgeons is low but it is increasing. Our predictions indicate a balanced work market for surgeons in Iceland for the next 15 years. However, there are many uncertainty factors in the calculations and they do not predict the prospects for individual subspecialties.