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Adaptation and validation of the instrument Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision for medical students in primary health care.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature280942
Source
BMC Med Educ. 2016 Dec 01;16(1):308
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-01-2016
Author
Eva Öhman
Hassan Alinaghizadeh
Päivi Kaila
Håkan Hult
Gunnar H Nilsson
Helena Salminen
Source
BMC Med Educ. 2016 Dec 01;16(1):308
Date
Dec-01-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Clinical Competence - standards
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Educational Measurement
Factor Analysis, Statistical
Humans
Learning
Primary Health Care
Reproducibility of Results
Students, Medical - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden - epidemiology
Workplace
Abstract
Clinical learning takes place in complex socio-cultural environments that are workplaces for the staff and learning places for the students. In the clinical context, the students learn by active participation and in interaction with the rest of the community at the workplace. Clinical learning occurs outside the university, therefore is it important for both the university and the student that the student is given opportunities to evaluate the clinical placements with an instrument that allows evaluation from many perspectives. The instrument Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision (CLES) was originally developed for evaluation of nursing students' clinical learning environment. The aim of this study was to adapt and validate the CLES instrument to measure medical students' perceptions of their learning environment in primary health care.
In the adaptation process the face validity was tested by an expert panel of primary care physicians, who were also active clinical supervisors. The adapted CLES instrument with 25 items and six background questions was sent electronically to 1,256 medical students from one university. Answers from 394 students were eligible for inclusion. Exploratory factor analysis based on principal component methods followed by oblique rotation was used to confirm the adequate number of factors in the data. Construct validity was assessed by factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to confirm the dimensions of CLES instrument.
The construct validity showed a clearly indicated four-factor model. The cumulative variance explanation was 0.65, and the overall Cronbach's alpha was 0.95. All items loaded similarly with the dimensions in the non-adapted CLES except for one item that loaded to another dimension. The CLES instrument in its adapted form had high construct validity and high reliability and internal consistency.
CLES, in its adapted form, appears to be a valid instrument to evaluate medical students' perceptions of their clinical learning environment in primary health care.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27905932 View in PubMed
Less detail

Analytic global OSCE ratings are sensitive to level of training.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature182731
Source
Med Educ. 2003 Nov;37(11):1012-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2003
Author
Brian Hodges
Jodi Herold McIlroy
Author Affiliation
Wilson Centre for Research in Education, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. brian.hodges@uturonto.ca
Source
Med Educ. 2003 Nov;37(11):1012-6
Date
Nov-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Clinical Clerkship - standards
Clinical Competence - standards
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Educational Measurement - methods
Humans
Psychometrics - methods
Reproducibility of Results
Abstract
There are several reasons for using global ratings in addition to checklists for scoring objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) stations. However, there has been little evidence collected regarding the validity of these scales. This study assessed the construct validity of an analytic global rating with 4 component subscales: empathy, coherence, verbal and non-verbal expression.
A total of 19 Year 3 and 38 Year 4 clinical clerks were scored on content checklists and these global ratings during a 10-station OSCE. T-tests were used to assess differences between groups for overall checklist and global scores, and for each of the 4 subscales.
The mean global rating was significantly higher for senior clerks (75.5% versus 71.3%, t55 = 2.12, P
PubMed ID
14629415 View in PubMed
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An analysis of undergraduate ophthalmology training in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148287
Source
Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct;44(5):513-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Jason Noble
Kirandeep Somal
Harmeet S Gill
Wai-Ching Lam
Author Affiliation
Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont, Canada.
Source
Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct;44(5):513-8
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Clinical Competence - standards
Cross-Sectional Studies
Curriculum - standards
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Female
Guidelines as Topic
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ophthalmology - education
Questionnaires
Schools, Medical - standards
Societies, Medical
Abstract
To investigate the adequacy of undergraduate ophthalmology education in Canada in comparison with the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) guidelines.
Cross-sectional survey.
First-year residents who had graduated from Canadian medical schools.
Eligible residents were invited to participate in an online survey in 2007. Data were categorized by demographic variables, and basic statistics were done.
Responses were obtained from 386 of the 1425 individuals (27.0%) contacted. The majority (64.0%) stated they had "too little" or "no exposure" to ophthalmology in medical school. The majority (76.2%) of respondents stated that they had had 1 week or less of overall exposure to ophthalmology. Sufficient exposure to several ICO core subspecialty areas was reported, including lens/cataract (81.1%) and cornea/external diseases (81.6%); however, some areas did not receive adequate time allocation, such as vitreoretinal disease (41.9%). Similarly, competency was obtained in certain ICO examination skills, including assessment of visual acuity (83.3%) and pupillary reflexes (90.7%) but was not achieved for other skills, such as fundoscopy (52.3%), slit-lamp examination (44.8%), and intraocular pressure assessment (19.9%). When asked whether sufficient ophthalmology knowledge and skills had been obtained during medical school, only 42.9% and 25.9% agreed, respectively.
Undergraduate ophthalmology training in Canada contains gaps in certain key areas. Developing a national, standardized curriculum could ensure that medical students acquire competency in the ophthalmology knowledge and skills required for future clinical practice.
Notes
Comment In: Can J Ophthalmol. 2009 Oct;44(5):499-50119789578
PubMed ID
19789584 View in PubMed
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[A national questionnaire shows the quality of Swedish medical education. Physicians' perspectives two years after examination].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124988
Source
Lakartidningen. 2012 Feb 29-Mar 13;109(9-10):468-72
Publication Type
Article

Are some of the challenging aspects of the CanMEDS roles valid outside Canada?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature81305
Source
Med Educ. 2006 Aug;40(8):807-15
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2006
Author
Ringsted Charlotte
Hansen Torben Lindskov
Davis Deborah
Scherpbier Albert
Author Affiliation
Centre of Clinical Education, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. charlotte.ringsted@rh.hosp.dk
Source
Med Educ. 2006 Aug;40(8):807-15
Date
Aug-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Analysis of Variance
Attitude of Health Personnel
Clinical Competence - standards
Competency-Based Education
Denmark
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Specialism - standards
Abstract
CONTEXT: Many countries have adopted the CanMEDS roles. However, there is limited information on how these apply in an international context and in different specialties. OBJECTIVES: To survey trainee and specialist ratings of the importance of the CanMEDS roles and perceived ability to perform tasks within the roles. METHODS: We surveyed 8749 doctors within a defined region (eastern Denmark) via a single-issue, mailed questionnaire. Each of the 7 roles was represented by 3 questionnaire items to be rated for perceived importance and confidence in ability to perform the role. RESULTS: Responses were received from 3476 doctors (42.8%), including 190 interns, 201 doctors in the introductory year of specialist training, 529 residents and 2152 specialists. The overall mean rating of importance (on a scale of 1-5) of the aspects of competence described in the CanMEDS roles was 4.2 (standard deviation 0.6) and did not differ between trainee groups and specialists. Mean ratings of confidence were lower than ratings of importance and increased across the groups from interns to specialists. Differences between specialty groups were evident in both importance and confidence for many of the roles. For laboratory, technical and, to a lesser extent, cognitive specialties, the role of Health Advocate scored the lowest in importance. For general medicine specialties, the roles of Medical Expert, Collaborator, Manager and Scholar all scored lower for importance and confidence. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a sketch of the content and construct validity of the CanMEDS roles in a non-Canadian setting. More research is needed in how these aspects of competence can be best taught and applied across specialties in different jurisdictions.
Notes
ReprintIn: Ugeskr Laeger. 2007 Jun 11;169(24):2329-3217594852
PubMed ID
16869928 View in PubMed
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Association between a medical school admission process using the multiple mini-interview and national licensing examination scores.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118406
Source
JAMA. 2012 Dec 5;308(21):2233-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-5-2012
Author
Kevin W Eva
Harold I Reiter
Jack Rosenfeld
Kien Trinh
Timothy J Wood
Geoffrey R Norman
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. kevin.eva@ubc.ca
Source
JAMA. 2012 Dec 5;308(21):2233-40
Date
Dec-5-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Educational Measurement
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Licensure
Ontario
School Admission Criteria
Schools, Medical
Abstract
There has been difficulty designing medical school admissions processes that provide valid measurement of candidates' nonacademic qualities.
To determine whether students deemed acceptable through a revised admissions protocol using a 12-station multiple mini-interview (MMI) outperform others on the 2 parts of the Canadian national licensing examinations (Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination [MCCQE]). The MMI process requires candidates to rotate through brief sequential interviews with structured tasks and independent assessment within each interview.
Cohort study comparing potential medical students who were interviewed at McMaster University using an MMI in 2004 or 2005 and accepted (whether or not they matriculated at McMaster) with those who were interviewed and rejected but gained entry elsewhere. The computer-based MCCQE part I (aimed at assessing medical knowledge and clinical decision making) can be taken on graduation from medical school; MCCQE part II (involving simulated patient interactions testing various aspects of practice) is based on the objective structured clinical examination and typically completed 16 months into postgraduate training. Interviews were granted to 1071 candidates, and those who gained entry could feasibly complete both parts of their licensure examination between May 2007 and March 2011. Scores could be matched on the examinations for 751 (part I) and 623 (part II) interviewees.
Admissions decisions were made by combining z score transformations of scores assigned to autobiographical essays, grade point average, and MMI performance. Academic and nonacademic measures contributed equally to the final ranking.
Scores on MCCQE part I (standardized cut-score, 390 [SD, 100]) and part II (standardized mean, 500 [SD, 100]).
Candidates accepted by the admissions process had higher scores than those who were rejected for part I (mean total score, 531 [95% CI, 524-537] vs 515 [95% CI, 507-522]; P = .003) and for part II (mean total score, 563 [95% CI, 556-570] vs 544 [95% CI, 534-554]; P = .007). Among the accepted group, those who matriculated at McMaster did not outperform those who matriculated elsewhere for part I (mean total score, 524 [95% CI, 515-533] vs 546 [95% CI, 535-557]; P = .004) and for part II (mean total score, 557 [95% CI, 548-566] vs 582 [95% CI, 569-594]; P = .003).
Compared with students who were rejected by an admission process that used MMI assessment, students who were accepted scored higher on Canadian national licensing examinations.
Notes
Comment In: JAMA. 2013 Mar 20;309(11):1108-923512047
Comment In: JAMA. 2012 Dec 5;308(21):2250-123212504
Comment In: JAMA. 2013 Mar 20;309(11):110923512048
PubMed ID
23212501 View in PubMed
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Before the white coat: perceptions of professional lapses in the pre-clerkship.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature176873
Source
Med Educ. 2005 Jan;39(1):12-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Shiphra Ginsburg
Natasha Kachan
Lorelei Lingard
Author Affiliation
Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. shiphra.ginsburg@utoronto.ca
Source
Med Educ. 2005 Jan;39(1):12-9
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Canada
Clinical Clerkship - standards
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Ethics, Medical
Focus Groups
Humans
Professional Competence - standards
Professional Misconduct - ethics
Students, Medical - psychology
Abstract
It has been shown that the professional development of clinical clerks is influenced by their experiences of unprofessional behaviour, but the perceptions of pre-clerkship students have received relatively little attention. Our purpose was to develop a greater contextual understanding of the situations in which pre-clerkship students encounter professional challenges, and to investigate what pre-clerkship students consider to be professional lapses in these situations.
We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 22 students); transcripts were analysed by 3 researchers using grounded theory.
Pre-clerkship students reported lapses in the areas of communicative violation, role resistance, objectification, accountability and harm, validating our previous clerkship-based framework. However, they also reported numerous lapses committed by fellow students and many instances of lack of accountability to students, which were not reported by clerks. Many of their reports involved non-health care professionals.
The willingness of pre-clerkship students to report on fellow students was associated with a tendency to blame their colleagues, at the expense of a more reflective analysis, and their views on professionalism appeared to be generic rather than medicine-specific. We should reinforce students' appreciation of these generic values and add on medicine-specific values as the students progress, in order to better cultivate professionalism without entitlement.
PubMed ID
15612896 View in PubMed
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Canadian multidisciplinary core curriculum for musculoskeletal health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature165982
Source
J Rheumatol. 2007 Mar;34(3):567-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2007
Author
Veronica M R Wadey
En-Tzu Tang
Gregory Abelseth
Parvati Dev
Richard A Olshen
Decker Walker
Author Affiliation
Stanford University Medical Media Information and Technologies, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.
Source
J Rheumatol. 2007 Mar;34(3):567-80
Date
Mar-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Canada
Curriculum - standards
Data Collection
Education, Medical, Graduate - standards
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Physicians
Abstract
To determine the level of agreement among the Bone and Joint Decade Undergraduate Curriculum Group (BJDUCG) core curriculum recommendations for musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions targeted for undergraduate medical education and what the physicians and surgeons of Canada thought to be important at the postgraduate level of education.
An 80-item questionnaire was developed. A cross-sectional survey of educators representing 77 Canadian accredited academic programs representing 6 disciplines in medicine that manage patients with MSK conditions was completed. Histograms, Kruskal-Wallis, and principal component analyses were computed.
In total, 164/175 (94%) respondents participated in the study. All 80 curriculum items received a mean score of at least 3.0/4.0. Sixty-four out of 80 items were ranked to be at least 3.5/4.0, and 35 items were ranked to be at least 3.8/4.0, suggesting that these items may be core content for all disciplines.
The World Health Organization declared the years 2000 to 2010 as The Bone and Joint Decade. The main goal is to improve the quality of life for people with MSK disorders worldwide. One aim of the BJD is to increase education of healthcare providers at all levels. The BJDUCG established a set of core curriculum recommendations for MSK conditions. Our study gives reliable statistical evidence of agreement among what the BJDUCG recommended for an MSK core curriculum for medical schools and what the physicians and surgeons of Canada thought to be important for residency education in several disciplines.
Notes
Comment In: J Rheumatol. 2007 Mar;34(3):455-717343296
PubMed ID
17183615 View in PubMed
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Continuous quality improvement and community-based faculty development through an innovative site visit program at one institution.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163940
Source
Acad Med. 2007 May;82(5):465-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Rebecca Malik
Risa Bordman
Glenn Regehr
Risa Freeman
Author Affiliation
Undergraduate Family Medicine, Site Visit Committee, University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. r.malik@utoronto.ca
Source
Acad Med. 2007 May;82(5):465-8
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Community Health Services
Community Medicine - education
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards
Faculty, Medical
Family Practice - education
Humans
Models, Educational
Ontario
Organizational Innovation
Pilot Projects
Program Development
Program Evaluation
Schools, Medical - organization & administration - trends
Total Quality Management
Abstract
This article describes and evaluates a unique site-visit process for community-based teaching sites. A continuous quality-improvement program was developed by the undergraduate program in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine to facilitate and document both self- and peer-assessment. A pilot program was launched in 2000, and, after some adjustments based on initial feedback, the program in its current form was implemented in 2002. This program provides individualized support mechanisms to address the faculty development needs and infrastructure requirements of community-based, mostly volunteer, teachers. It also trains participating reviewers to provide individualized faculty development at the point of teaching. During their training, reviewers receive a toolkit consisting of suggestions for initial contact with teachers, guidelines for peer assessments, previously completed previsit teacher surveys, reviewer checklists, postvisit feedback forms, sample thank-you letters, and a faculty development reference resource list. A two-year evaluation of the program demonstrated that faculty and reviewer participants perceived it to be comprehensive, consistent, informative, and an acceptable method of reviewing existing and prospective community-based teaching sites. This program should be transferable to other institutions that engage in community-based teaching.
PubMed ID
17457068 View in PubMed
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The current status of medical genetics instruction in US and Canadian medical schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163942
Source
Acad Med. 2007 May;82(5):441-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2007
Author
Virginia Carol Thurston
Paula Sue Wales
Mary Alice Bell
Laura Torbeck
James Joseph Brokaw
Author Affiliation
Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA. vthursto@iupui.edu
Source
Acad Med. 2007 May;82(5):441-5
Date
May-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Curriculum - standards - trends
Data Collection
Education, Medical, Undergraduate - standards - trends
Faculty, Medical
Genetics, Medical - education
Humans
Indiana
Questionnaires
Schools, Medical - trends
United States
Abstract
Relatively little is known about how medical genetics is being taught in the undergraduate medical curriculum and whether educators concur regarding topical priority. This study sought to document the current state of medical genetics education in U.S. and Canadian accredited medical schools.
In August 2004, surveys were sent from the Indiana University School of Medicine to 149 U.S. and Canadian medical genetics course directors or curricular deans. Returned surveys were collected through June 2005. Participants were asked about material covered, number of contact hours, year in which the course was offered, and what department sponsored the course. Data were collated according to instructional method and course content.
The response rate was 75.2%. Most respondents (77%) taught medical genetics in the first year of medical school; only half (47%) reported that medical genetics was incorporated into the third and fourth years. About two thirds of respondents (62%) devoted 20 to 40 hours to medical genetics instruction, which was largely concerned with general concepts (86%) rather than practical application (11%). Forty-six percent of respondents reported teaching a stand-alone course versus 54% who integrated medical genetics into another course. Topics most commonly taught were cancer genetics (94.2%), multifactorial inheritance (91.3%), Mendelian disorders (90.3%), clinical cytogenetics (89.3%), and patterns of inheritance (87.4%).
The findings provide important baseline data relative to guidelines recently established by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Ultimately, improved genetics curricula will help train physicians who are knowledgeable and comfortable discussing and answering questions about genetics with their patients.
PubMed ID
17457062 View in PubMed
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52 records – page 1 of 6.