Breastfeeding advocates say that breastfeeding is health promotion in its purest form. Its considerable health benefits to the infant and the mother are well documented. Recent research has identified breastfeeding as a key factor in the prevention of sudden infant death syndrome and increased cognitive functioning. As a method of feeding, breastfeeding offers immediate economic advantages to the parents and long term economic savings to society. One author reports that the exclusive breastfeeding of infants for four months could save the Province of Ontario at least $862,000 a year just by reducing the need for the treatment of otitis media. Another researcher calculated the cost of treating 150 bottle-fed babies hospitalized for gastroenteritis at $450,000 Canadian, while reminding us that "hospitalization for gastroenteritis is almost unknown for exclusively breastfed infants." With all these known benefits, why is breastfeeding not more prevalent among Canadian mothers?
Studies on patient comfort with medical student involvement have been conducted within several specialties and have consistently reported positive results. However, it is unknown whether the intrinsic differences between specialties may influence the degree to which patients are comfortable with student involvement in their care.
This is the first study to investigate whether patient comfort varies across specialties.
A total of 625 patients were surveyed in teaching clinics in Family Medicine, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Urology, General Surgery, and Paediatrics. Seven patient attitudes and patients' comfort levels based on student gender, level of training, and type of clinical involvement were assessed.
Patients in all specialties shared similar comfort levels and attitudes regarding medical student involvement for the majority of parameters assessed, suggesting that findings in this area may be generalised between specialties. Most of the inter-specialty variation found pertained to patient preference for student gender and the genitourinary specialties.
As there are numerous specialties that have never undergone a similar investigation of their patients, this study has important implications for medical educators in those specialties by supporting their ability to apply the results and recommendations of studies conducted in other specialties to their own.
There has been a great deal of focus on specialist training in pediatric anesthesia in the last decade or so. Internationally, however, there is still no uniform agreement as to how such a training program should be arranged and organized. Since September 2003, the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine has coordinated an advanced Inter-Nordic educational program in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care. The training program is managed by a Steering Committee. This program is intended for physicians who recently have received their specialist degree in anesthesiology and intensive care. The training period is 12 months of which 9 months are dedicated to pediatric anesthesia and 3 months to pediatric intensive care. During the 1-year training period, the candidates are designated a Scandinavian host clinic (at a tertiary pediatric center in Scandinavia approved by the Steering Committee). The host clinic employs the candidate in an appropriate position for the duration of the training program. The program also includes three theoretical courses each of 4 days duration and a 4-week exchange module at another pediatric center inside or outside Scandinavia. In this article the Scandinavian training program in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care is presented and discussed in more details. International collaboration on how best to arrange and organize a training program in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care is encouraged.
The unbiased selection of images representing a spectrum of diagnostic difficulty is an important first step in designing effective assessment and teaching interventions for X-ray interpretation.
This study aimed to develop a scale that would reliably differentiate more difficult X-rays from those that are easier to interpret.
After pilot testing, an X-ray difficulty scale (XRDS) was developed. Raters of different learner levels from two universities were presented with 20 chest X-rays (CXRs) and asked to read them and then to answer the scale questions that would help to differentiate the level of difficulty of interpretation of each film. Reliability of the scale was evaluated. Face validity of the scale was assessed and the construct validity of two hypotheses was tested.
The final scale consisted of five questions in which a given X-ray could score from--10 (most difficult) to + 10 (easiest to interpret) by a single rater. Raters included 53 medical students, 10 paediatric residents and 10 emergency staff. The scale demonstrated excellent internal consistency (r = 0.94), inter-rater reliability (r = 0.95) and overall reliability (r = 0.90) in medical students. Construct validity testing demonstrated good correlation (r = 0.72) between diagnostic accuracy and mean XRDS score. Mean scores on the scale were significantly lower (indicating that CXRs were more difficult to interpret) for students than for resident and staff doctors (P
Health care staff and families with young children are often unware of the ease of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) spread and potential clinical consequences of serious respiratory illness. Successful Canadian RSV prophylaxis (RSVP) programs (a) provide practical educational resources on RSV and respiratory disease that consider language and cultural barriers; (b) develop policies to identify all children eligible for RSVP with palivizumab; (c) emphasize compliance with RSVP, particularly during patient transfer between hospitals, community clinics, and remote outpost centers; and (d) establish collaborative networks to help ensure optimum RSVP compliance for all high-risk children. Herein, we share practical resources and key educational references for counseling of caregivers with infants or young children at risk for RSV infection, and health care providers participating in RSVP program development.