To investigate learning in telemedicine, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 people working with telepsychiatry, teledermatology, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. More than 80% of the respondents said that they had learnt something new by using telemedicine. Most frequently the participants improved their knowledge of the specialty in which they were involved, but this was not the only way in which they learnt. The learning did not necessarily change behaviour, as two-thirds of the respondents felt that the learning had not permitted them to perform tasks for which they had previously needed assistance (although this varied somewhat with the type of telemedical work that respondents were engaged in). Two-thirds of respondents thought that something more could be done in telemedical work to promote their own learning, which shows the clear potential for learning by telemedicine. Learning could be promoted further by extending the use of the technology to other applications. To start working with telemedicine, initial instruction seems to be sufficient--a more extensive training programme appears unnecessary. In future, as many applications of telemedicine are implemented, health-care organizations may become important arenas for learning and leaders will have to focus on learning. The results of the present study clearly showed that working with telemedicine produces learning.
This is a condensed version of a research project relating to the design and the development of a research instrument concerning 'Mentor Relationship as a Tool of Professional Development of Student Nurses in Clinical Practice'. This short research paper is taken from and reproduces the research work undertaken by Saarikoski (2002). The main themes refer to: (1) Evaluation scale to assess the quality of clinical learning environment and (2) Supervision of student nurses during their clinical placements. Parts one and two are taken from the main research study and include the following (i) developing and testing an evaluation tool (ii) describing how nursing students experience their clinical learning environment and (iii) the supervision given by qualified staff nurses working in a hospital setting. This abridged report discusses the methodology approaches undertaken by the author and includes: (a) comparative phased twin centred study (b) a pilot scheme and (c) a primary research instrument that was developed into an extensively validated assessment-measuring tool. This report strongly suggests that there is clear evidence in this research report that the supervisory relationship is the most important single element of pedagogical activities of staff nurses. The total satisfaction of students correlated most clearly with the method of supervision and that those satisfied students had a successful mentor relationship and frequently enough access to private supervision sessions with mentor. In the sample of this empirical study (n = 279 student nurses in Finland) individualized supervision system was most common on psychiatric wards. All nurse educators and clinical practitioners working across Europe and around the World in clinical learning environments will find this paper very useful in helping them to improve and quantify the supervisory process. This study starts bridging the gap between using and integrating both at a National and European level qualitative assessment systems that relate to the learning and supervisory process. The study encourages the need for professionals to test these new instruments in other nursing cultures and reflects upon the need for further research work in this area.
We compared face-to-face and videoconference delivery of an education programme for health professionals on the subject of neonatal stabilization skills. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used to compare knowledge acquisition and satisfaction between the two modalities. There were no statistically significant differences between delivery modalities for knowledge acquisition. Both groups showed significant gains in knowledge when pre- and post-test scores were compared. Responses to most of the items in a survey of satisfaction with the course did not differ significantly between the two groups. Face-to-face participants expressed higher levels of comfort in interacting with the presenter, and those in the videoconference group were more willing to receive the course via videoconference in the future. Videoconferencing provided an effective and acceptable way of delivering neonatal stabilization skills.
The present article describes the pilot course in basic sexology for medical students. The duration of the course was 5 days (35 hours). The themes-sex and gender, sexual physiology, contraception, sexual inadequacy, sexual deviations, and sexual counselling-were approached from many different angles. The teaching procedure comprised lectures, group work, and group discussions, internal television, films, plenary discussions, and debates. The course was evaluated by means of the sex knowledge and attitude test (SKAT) given before and after the course. Furthermore an evaluation was given by the students, by a professional teacher, and by a paramedical evaluator at the end of the course. The results showed significant changes in attitudes and knowledge.
A shortage of radiation oncologists has been a problem in both Canada and the United States of America. The fundamental step to rectify this situation is the recruitment of interested medical students. A mail-in survey was sent to 214 third- and fourth-year medical students at the University of British Columbia to evaluate attitudes to and the level of understanding of radiation oncology. The response rate was 59%. Seventy-five percent of the students were planning postgraduate training in clinically orientated specialties with good lifestyle and availability of job opportunities. However, only 18% of the respondents considered radiation oncology as a possible specialty. This survey suggests that this lack of interest is the result of misconceptions about training in the practice of radiotherapy. To better inform the medical students, teaching clinics providing them with direct contact with radiation oncologists and their patients, are invaluable. In order to generate the correct image of the specialty and the types of patients encountered, teaching in an ambulatory care setting is not to be neglected. Distribution of information pamphlets describing the radiation oncology program and the nature of radiation oncology practice is also suggested as an efficient means of informing medical students.
A questionnaire survey was conducted of physicians and nurses who had participated in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS)-Provider courses during a 5-year period. Both physicians and nurses believed that a conjoint physician-nurse ACLS-Provider course was a good learning experience and an excellent exercise in interprofessional communication. On the basis of these data, we suggest that a conjoint ACLS-Provider course be maintained, rather than establishing different modules for different professions.
In the statement of aims of the education for general practice in Denmark competences in orthopaedic as well as in internal general surgery are specified by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority. In the period 2008-2010 there were three different types of employment for the assessment of competences in surgery. We found that doctors in training who had been employed in both orthopaedic and general surgery wards to a greater extent felt confident about their required competences in orthopaedic surgery. A majority of the 27 doctors participating in this survey felt that this kind of employment would be the best way to ensure the achievement of surgical competences.
This paper examines learner satisfaction with technologies used for distance delivery of continuing education across 10 Canadian sites: nine within the province of Alberta and one in Nunavut Territory. The technologies were satellite (or videotapes of) broadcasts, videoconferencing, and web-based technology. Learner satisfaction was evaluated using questionnaires. A survey on general issues related to continuing education was developed and mailed to random samples of health professionals and a convenience sample of stakeholders. The learners (n = 1,141) represented 20 types of health service providers who had attended at least one session delivered via satellite, videotape, or videoconferencing. Seven individuals completed the web-based course. Overall, the majority of participants were satisfied or very satisfied. In general, satellite delivery was received more favorably compared with videotapes of the same content. A total of 350 (33% response rate) health professionals and 37 (50% response rate) stakeholders returned the surveys. Nearly 50% of health professionals thought that clinical case presentations (rounds) were valuable to them, but over half of the stakeholders perceived that videotapes, rounds, and research seminars were valuable to health professionals. Ratings for the web-based course varied, indicating different learner characteristics. We conclude that it is possible to utilize multiple technologies to meet the continuing education needs of an interdisciplinary group of health service providers, but future research is needed to develop a framework for evaluating the usability of multiple existing and emerging technologies for distance education.
To explore the association between clinical training characteristics and trainees' level of confidence in performing ultrasound scans independently.
A cross-sectional e-survey was distributed to members of the national societies of junior obstetricians/gynecologists in Denmark, Sweden and Norway (n = 973). Multiple linear regression models were used to explore the effect that amount of time spent in specialized ultrasound units and clinical experience had on trainees' confidence in performing ultrasonography independently. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify factors that contributed to trainees' confidence in performing ultrasonography. Trainees' ultrasound confidence was finally compared with their expected levels of performance.
Of the 682 respondents (response rate 70.1%), 621 met the inclusion criteria. Clinical experience and time spent in specialized ultrasound units were predictors of trainees' confidence in performing ultrasonography independently (P