The objective was to study the relationship between the length and content of patient-pharmacist communication in community pharmacies, and generic substitution.
The study was conducted in six community pharmacies in Sweden. Non-participant observations with audio recordings and short structured interviews were conducted. Out of 32 pharmacists 29 agreed to participate (90.6%), as did 282 out of 407 patients (69.3%). Logistic regression analysis was applied to calculate odds ratio for occurrence of generic substitution. Linear regression (ß-coefficients) was applied to test for differences in time spent on different categories.
In encounters where generic substitution occurred more time (19.2 s) was spent on non-medical (for instance administrative or economical) issues (P = 0.01, 95% confidence interval 4.8-33.6). However, the total time of the encounter was not significantly longer. The amount of time spent on non-medical issues increased with age of patient (age 60+: ß, 33 s, P
There are major gaps in the understanding of sexual and reproductive health in female renal transplant recipients.
In this Norwegian multicenter retrospective observational study, 118 female renal transplant recipients aged 22 to 49 years responded to a questionnaire on fertility, contraceptive use, and pregnancy.
More than one-third (37%) of patients reported that they did not receive advice on contraceptive methods from health care personnel in the early post-transplant phase. These women used effective contraceptive methods less often. Nearly half of the patients (45%) reported that they had not received any advice on timing of conception after transplant. From 95 pregnancies after renal transplant, 52 (55%) resulted in live births.
Counseling on contraceptive methods should be part of standard care in conjunction with transplantation. More than one-third of young female renal transplant recipients of reproductive age could not recall having received advice from health care personnel about contraceptive use, and nearly half of the patients did not receive preconceptional advice after transplant. Although the current study does not discriminate between lack of advice and recall bias, the findings signal the need for improved counseling on female sexual and reproductive health after renal transplant.
Childhood obesity represents a social burden. This study aims to investigate whether achieved educational level differs in young adults who have suffered obesity in childhood compared with the general population and to determine how obesity treatment influences achieved educational level.
This prospective cohort study includes subjects from the Swedish Childhood Obesity Treatment Registry (BORIS, n = 1,465) who were followed up after 20 years of age. They were compared with a randomly selected matched population-based group (n = 6,979). Achieved educational level was defined as =12 years in school (completers). Covariates include sex, migration background, and attention deficit disorders for both groups. Furthermore, age and degree of obesity at start of obesity treatment, treatment duration, and efficacy were analyzed in the obese cohort.
In the obese cohort, 55.4% were school completers, compared with 76.2% in the comparison group (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = .42, p
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been proved to save lives; however, whether survival is affected by the training level of the bystander is not fully described.
To describe if the training level of laymen and medically educated bystanders affect 30-day survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA).
This observational study included all witnessed and treated cases of bystander CPR reported to the Swedish Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation between 2010 and 2014. Bystander CPR was divided into two categories: (a) lay-byCPR (non-medically educated) and (b) med-byCPR (off duty medically educated personnel).
During 2010-2014, 24,643 patients were reported to the OHCA registry, of which 6850 received lay-byCPR and 1444 med-byCPR; 16,349 crew-witnessed and non-witnessed cases and those with missing information were excluded from the analysis. The median interval from collapse to call for emergency medical services was 2min in both groups (p=0.97) and 2min from collapse to start of CPR for lay-byCPR versus 1min for med-byCPR (p