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Beyond borders: on the influence of the creationist movement on the educational landscape in the USA and Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291043
Source
Theory Biosci. 2017 Jun; 136(1-2):31-48
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Jun-2017
Author
Elizabeth Watts
Uwe Hossfeld
Irina Tolstikova
Georgy S Levit
Author Affiliation
Working Group Biology Education, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Am Steiger 3, 07743, Jena, Germany. elzwatts@gmail.com.
Source
Theory Biosci. 2017 Jun; 136(1-2):31-48
Date
Jun-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Biological Evolution
Biology - education
Curriculum
Education
Environment
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Missionaries
Movement
Politics
Public Opinion
Religion
Religion and Science
Religious Missions
Russia
Teaching - history - standards
United States
Abstract
This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms. Now, decades following Sputnik's trip to space, the urgency to strengthen scientific learning has waned, while creationists are still equally focused on removing scientific naturalism in favor of supernatural explanations for the origin of species. This paper thus offers an in-depth look at which groups are currently responsible for promoting creationist activities in the US and in Russia and which groups are working hard to keep supernatural doctrines out of science curriculum.
Notes
Cites: Theory Biosci. 2013 Dec;132(4):289-97 PMID 24022180
Cites: J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2004 Jul 15;302(4):343-54 PMID 15287099
Cites: Science. 2006 Aug 11;313(5788):765-6 PMID 16902112
Cites: Nature. 2006 Nov 16;444(7117):265 PMID 17108937
Cites: Science. 1974 Sep 6;185(4154):832-7 PMID 4602163
PubMed ID
27766483 View in PubMed
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Always stay cheerful - health information in the 1920s.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298442
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 10 30; 138(17):
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
10-30-2018
Author
Erlend Hem
Rannveig Nordhagen
Per E Børdahl
Source
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 10 30; 138(17):
Date
10-30-2018
Language
English
Norwegian
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Child
Child Health - history
Consumer Health Information - history
Health Education - history
Health Promotion - history
History, 20th Century
Humans
Hygiene - history
Mothers - education - history
Norway
Posters as Topic
Preventive Health Services - history
Public Health - history
Abstract
The interwar period was a time of comprehensive preventive health programmes in Norway. Physical exercise, nutritious diets, strict sleep regimens and better hygiene were at the centre of these efforts. A massive mobilisation of volunteers and professionals took place. The publication of House Maxims for Mothers and Children was part of this large-scale mobilisation, and consisted of ten posters with pithy health advice for hanging on the wall. Mothers were an important target group for health promotion.
The posters have previously received little attention in medical literature, but they can elucidate some features of life and the health propaganda of their time. We have used databases that provide access to newspapers, books and medical literature: Retriever, bokhylla.no, Oria, PubMed and Web of Science.
It is hard to quantify the effect of this popular movement when compared to political measures to improve living conditions. In any case, mortality rates fell, life expectancy increased and the dreaded communicable diseases were largely defeated. Special efforts were targeted at children, also with good results. Infant mortality fell and schoolchildren became healthier, stronger, taller and cleaner.
The line between social hygiene and general disciplining is blurred, for example the boundary between a healthy diet and bourgeois norms. The education of mothers and children also included a normative aspect that concerned good manners and control.
Notes
ErratumIn: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 Oct 31;138(19): PMID 30497256
PubMed ID
30378403 View in PubMed
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Trusted and doubted: Discourses of parenting training in two Swedish official inquiries, 1947 and 2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290649
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2018 Feb; 46(20_suppl):59-65
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Feb-2018
Author
Hetty Rooth
Ulla Forinder
Maja Söderbäck
Eija Viitasara
Katarina Piuva
Author Affiliation
1 School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2018 Feb; 46(20_suppl):59-65
Date
Feb-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
History, 20th Century
History, 21st Century
Humans
Parenting
Parents - education - psychology
Sweden
Trust
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century.
We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes. Tools from political discourse analysis were used to investigate the objectives of political discourse practices.
Both inquiries referred to a context of change and new life demands as a problem. Concerning suggestions for solutions, there were discrepancies in parents' estimated need of expert knowledge and in descriptions of parental capacity. In a discourse of trust and doubt, the parents in 1947 were positioned as trusted welfare partners and secure raisers of future generations, and in 2008, as doubted adults, feared to be faltering in their child-rearing tasks.
The analysis revealed how governmental problem descriptions, reasoning about causes and suggestions of solutions influenced parents' subject positions in a discourse of trust and doubt, and made way for governmental interventions with universal parenting training in the 21st century.
PubMed ID
29552973 View in PubMed
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The Russian feldsher: A PA prototype in transition.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature298219
Source
JAAPA. 2018 Nov; 31(11):1-6
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Date
Nov-2018
Author
Samuel C Ramer
Author Affiliation
Samuel C. Ramer is an associate professor in the Department of History at Tulane University in New Orleans, La. The author has disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.
Source
JAAPA. 2018 Nov; 31(11):1-6
Date
Nov-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Historical Article
Journal Article
Keywords
Delivery of Health Care
Female
History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
Humans
Male
Midwifery
Physician Assistants - education - history - statistics & numerical data - trends
Pregnancy
Professional Role
Russia
Russia (Pre-1917)
Abstract
The feldsher is a physician assistant (PA) prototype. Developed in Russia during the 19th century to serve as healthcare personnel at a time of physician scarcity, feldshers provided medical services throughout the Russian Empire and later Soviet Union. Their medical role from the mid-19th century until the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 was crucial, particularly in rural and underserved regions. During wartime, many served in the military as medics. During the late 20th century, feldshers' numbers waned compared with physicians and nurses. In the 21st century, they remain a presence in the Russian medical system but their future is in transition as their numbers decline. However, earlier this year, Russian President Vladimir Putin urged the Russian State Duma to create more feldsher-midwife stations in rural areas. This indicates that the Russian government, at the highest levels, see the need for more feldshers to serve, essentially, as PAs in remote areas.
PubMed ID
30358685 View in PubMed
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