This paper provides a detailed look at how creationism originated in the United States and then explores how this evangelical trend was exported to Russia by American missionaries following the fall of the USSR. The comparison between these two countries is particularly interesting since the rivalry between the US and the USSR during the race to space caused both countries to revamp their science education. Yet, while political interests led both governments to focus on science education, creationist activities were simultaneously focused on diminishing the coverage of evolution in science classrooms. Now, decades following Sputnik's trip to space, the urgency to strengthen scientific learning has waned, while creationists are still equally focused on removing scientific naturalism in favor of supernatural explanations for the origin of species. This paper thus offers an in-depth look at which groups are currently responsible for promoting creationist activities in the US and in Russia and which groups are working hard to keep supernatural doctrines out of science curriculum.
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The interwar period was a time of comprehensive preventive health programmes in Norway. Physical exercise, nutritious diets, strict sleep regimens and better hygiene were at the centre of these efforts. A massive mobilisation of volunteers and professionals took place. The publication of House Maxims for Mothers and Children was part of this large-scale mobilisation, and consisted of ten posters with pithy health advice for hanging on the wall. Mothers were an important target group for health promotion.
The posters have previously received little attention in medical literature, but they can elucidate some features of life and the health propaganda of their time. We have used databases that provide access to newspapers, books and medical literature: Retriever, bokhylla.no, Oria, PubMed and Web of Science.
It is hard to quantify the effect of this popular movement when compared to political measures to improve living conditions. In any case, mortality rates fell, life expectancy increased and the dreaded communicable diseases were largely defeated. Special efforts were targeted at children, also with good results. Infant mortality fell and schoolchildren became healthier, stronger, taller and cleaner.
The line between social hygiene and general disciplining is blurred, for example the boundary between a healthy diet and bourgeois norms. The education of mothers and children also included a normative aspect that concerned good manners and control.
ErratumIn: Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 Oct 31;138(19): PMID 30497256
The aim of this study was to analyse discourses of parenting training in official inquires in Sweden that explicitly deal with the bringing up of children and parental education and how the representations of the problems and their solutions affect parental subject positions in the early welfare state and at the onset of the 21st century.
We carried out a discourse analysis of two public inquiries of 1947 and 2008, drawing on theories about governmentality and power regimes. Tools from political discourse analysis were used to investigate the objectives of political discourse practices.
Both inquiries referred to a context of change and new life demands as a problem. Concerning suggestions for solutions, there were discrepancies in parents' estimated need of expert knowledge and in descriptions of parental capacity. In a discourse of trust and doubt, the parents in 1947 were positioned as trusted welfare partners and secure raisers of future generations, and in 2008, as doubted adults, feared to be faltering in their child-rearing tasks.
The analysis revealed how governmental problem descriptions, reasoning about causes and suggestions of solutions influenced parents' subject positions in a discourse of trust and doubt, and made way for governmental interventions with universal parenting training in the 21st century.
The feldsher is a physician assistant (PA) prototype. Developed in Russia during the 19th century to serve as healthcare personnel at a time of physician scarcity, feldshers provided medical services throughout the Russian Empire and later Soviet Union. Their medical role from the mid-19th century until the Bolshevik revolution in 1917 was crucial, particularly in rural and underserved regions. During wartime, many served in the military as medics. During the late 20th century, feldshers' numbers waned compared with physicians and nurses. In the 21st century, they remain a presence in the Russian medical system but their future is in transition as their numbers decline. However, earlier this year, Russian President Vladimir Putin urged the Russian State Duma to create more feldsher-midwife stations in rural areas. This indicates that the Russian government, at the highest levels, see the need for more feldshers to serve, essentially, as PAs in remote areas.