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An evaluation of training in motivational interviewing for nurses in child health services.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124046
Source
Behav Cogn Psychother. 2013 May;41(3):329-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2013
Author
Benjamin Bohman
Lars Forsberg
Ata Ghaderi
Finn Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Behav Cogn Psychother. 2013 May;41(3):329-43
Date
May-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child Health Services
Child, Preschool
Clinical Competence
Cross-Sectional Studies
Curriculum
Education
Exercise
Female
Food Habits
Health Promotion - methods
Humans
Infant
Male
Middle Aged
Motivational Interviewing
Obesity - epidemiology - nursing - prevention & control - psychology
Parents - education - psychology
Pediatric Nursing - education
Sweden
Abstract
Acquiring proficiency in motivational interviewing (MI) may be more difficult than generally believed, and training research suggests that the standard one-time workshop format may be insufficient. Although nurses represent one of the professions that have received most training in MI, training in this group has rarely been systematically evaluated using objective behavioral measures.
To evaluate an enhanced MI training program, comprising a 3.5-day workshop, systematic feedback on MI performance, and four sessions of supervision on practice samples.
Nurses (n = 36) in Swedish child health services were trained in MI. Skillfulness in MI was assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) Code. Effects of training were compared to beginning proficiency thresholds.
Participants did not reach beginning proficiency thresholds on any of the indicators of proficiency and effect sizes were small.
The present study adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the current standard MI training format may not provide practitioners with enough skillfulness. Moreover, the results indicate that even enhanced training, including systematic feedback and supervision, may not be sufficient. Suggestions for improved MI training are made.
PubMed ID
22632171 View in PubMed
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Educational achievement and vocational career in twins - a Swedish national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126810
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2012 Jun;101(6):591-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Anders Hjern
Cecilia Ekeus
Finn Rasmussen
Frank Lindblad
Author Affiliation
Centre for Health Equity Studies, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Sweden. anders.hjern@chess.su.se
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2012 Jun;101(6):591-6
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Occupations
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate how being born and raised as a twin is associated with IQ, educational achievement and vocational career.
Register study in a national birth cohort, complemented with a siblings study. The study population included 13,368 individuals born and raised as twins and 837,752 singletons, including 3019 siblings of twins, in the Swedish birth cohorts of 1973-1981. Our outcome measures were mean grade points on a five point scale from ninth grade of primary school at 15-16 years, IQ tests on a nine grade point scale from male conscripts at 18-19 years, highest completed education, disability benefits, work income and employment at 27-35 years of age.
Twins had slightly better mean grade point averages in ninth grade; +0.08 (95% CI 0.04-0.11) and more often had completed a university education in young adulthood; OR 1.16 (1.02-1.21) compared with singleton siblings, despite male twins having a slightly lower IQ at military conscription compared with male singletons. Employment rates, mean income and disability benefits were similar in twins and singletons.
Twins have slightly better educational careers and similar vocational careers compared with those born as singletons.
PubMed ID
22353254 View in PubMed
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Stability in the prevalence of Swedish children who were overweight or obese in 2003 and 2011.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281034
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2016 Oct;105(10):1173-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2016
Author
Jeroen S de Munter
Andrea Friedl
Simon Lind
Malin Kark
Magdalena Carlberg
Niklas Andersson
Antonis Georgellis
Finn Rasmussen
Source
Acta Paediatr. 2016 Oct;105(10):1173-80
Date
Oct-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Male
Pediatric Obesity - epidemiology
Prevalence
Sex Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Urban Population - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of overweight including obesity among children in Sweden in 2003 and 2011.
Two population-based cross-sectional surveys included 7728 and 12 882 12-year-old children in Sweden, and 1198 and 2699 eight-year-old children in Stockholm County, in 2003 and 2011. Weighted prevalence of overweight including obesity and multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated.
In 2011, the overweight prevalence was lower for 12-year-old girls than boys (RR=0.84, CI=0.77-0.92), lower for girls and boys with a higher rather than a lower educated mother (for example, RRgirls =0.76, CI=0.65-0.88), but higher for girls and boys in smaller rather than main cities (RRgirls =1.52, CI=1.28-1.82). There was no difference in overweight prevalence between 2003 and 2011 among the 12-year-old children. However, eight-year-old girls had a lower overweight prevalence in 2011 than in 2003 (RR=0.76, CI=0.59-0.97). The strongest decrease in overweight was among eight-year-old girls with mothers with lower levels of education (RR=0.63, CI=0.47-0.86).
The prevalence of overweight including obesity was stable among Swedish children between 2003 and 2011. Gradients in the determinants of overweight persisted. There was some evidence of a less steep socio-economic gradient in overweight in eight-year-old girls over time.
PubMed ID
26833765 View in PubMed
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School performance and hospital admissions due to self-inflicted injury: a Swedish national cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature150054
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;38(5):1334-41
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Beata Jablonska
Lene Lindberg
Frank Lindblad
Finn Rasmussen
Viveca Ostberg
Anders Hjern
Author Affiliation
Division of Applied Public Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Beata.Jablonska@ki.se
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;38(5):1334-41
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Risk factors
Self-Injurious Behavior - epidemiology - prevention & control - psychology
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Self-inflicted injury in youth has increased in many Western countries during recent decades. Education is the most influential societal determinant of living conditions in young people after early childhood. This study tested the hypothesis that school performance predicts self-inflicted injury.
A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-77 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and last year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox analyses of proportional hazards were used to test hypotheses regarding grades in ninth grade as predictors of hospital admission due to self-inflicted injury.
The risk of hospital admission because of self-inflicted injury increased steeply in a step-wise manner with decreasing grade point average. Hazard ratios were 6.2 (95% confidence interval 5.5-7.0) in those with the lowest level of grade point average compared with the highest. The risks were similar for women and men. Adjustment for potential socio-economic confounders in a multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis attenuated this strong gradient only marginally.
School performance is a strong factor for predicting future mental ill-health as expressed by self-inflicted injury.
PubMed ID
19556329 View in PubMed
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A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour--the mediating role of school performance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128132
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:17
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Beata Jablonska
Frank Lindblad
Viveca Ostberg
Lene Lindberg
Finn Rasmussen
Anders Hjern
Author Affiliation
Division of Applied Public Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. beata.jablonska@ki.se.
Source
BMC Public Health. 2012;12:17
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Educational Status
Female
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Parents
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Social Class
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour.
A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance.
The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status-non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported.
School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22230577 View in PubMed
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Risk of low Apgar scores and socioeconomic status over a 30-year period.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259760
Source
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Apr;27(6):603-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2014
Author
D. Odd
G. Lewis
D. Gunnell
Finn Rasmussen
Source
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Apr;27(6):603-7
Date
Apr-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Apgar score
Cohort Studies
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Newborn, Diseases - epidemiology - etiology
Male
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Risk factors
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of associations between social factors, as assessed by maternal occupation and education, and poor birth condition (an Apgar score of below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes) over a 30-year period in Sweden.
The dataset was based on infants born in Sweden between 1973 and 2002. Poor birth condition was defined as an Apgar score below 7 at 1 and 5 minutes. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of between socioeconomic status and poor birth condition.
In the adjusted model, mothers in non-manual occupations (OR 0.91 (0.88, 0.95)) or with higher educational status (OR 0.88 (0.84, 0.93)) were less likely to have an infant born in poor condition than the reference group. Limiting the analysis to the last decade showed less evidence for an association (OR 0.94 (0.86, 1.02) and OR 0.94 (0.82, 1.09), respectively).
While maternity, delivery and child healthcare are free of charge in Sweden, poor birth condition was more common among infants of mothers in manual occupations or low levels of education. However, this association appeared to attenuate over the calendar period studied.
PubMed ID
23941368 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic position and education in patients with coeliac disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature126903
Source
Dig Liver Dis. 2012 Jun;44(6):471-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2012
Author
Ola Olén
Erik Bihagen
Finn Rasmussen
Jonas F Ludvigsson
Author Affiliation
Sachs' Children's Hospital, Stockholm South General Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Dig Liver Dis. 2012 Jun;44(6):471-6
Date
Jun-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Case-Control Studies
Celiac Disease - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Confidence Intervals
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Infant
Logistic Models
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Socioeconomic position and education are strongly associated with several chronic diseases, but their relation to coeliac disease is unclear. We examined educational level and socioeconomic position in patients with coeliac disease.
We identified 29,096 patients with coeliac disease through biopsy reports (defined as Marsh 3: villous atrophy) from all Swedish pathology departments (n=28). Age- and sex-matched controls were randomly sampled from the Swedish Total Population Register (n=145,090). Data on level of education and socioeconomic position were obtained from the Swedish Education Register and the Occupational Register. We calculated odds ratios for the risk of having coeliac disease based on socioeconomic position according to the European Socioeconomic Classification (9 levels) and education.
Compared to individuals with high socioeconomic position (level 1 of 9) coeliac disease was less common in the lowest socioeconomic stratum (routine occupations=level 9 of 9: adjusted odds ratio=0.89; 95% confidence interval=0.84-0.94) but not less common in individuals with moderately low socioeconomic position: (level 7/9: adjusted odds ratio=0.96; 95% confidence interval=0.91-1.02; and level 8/9: adjusted odds ratio=0.99; 95% confidence interval=0.93-1.05). Coeliac disease was not associated with educational level.
In conclusion, diagnosed coeliac disease was slightly less common in individuals with low socioeconomic position but not associated with educational level. Coeliac disease may be unrecognised in individuals of low socioeconomic position.
Notes
Comment In: Dig Liver Dis. 2012 Aug;44(8):707; author reply 70822575390
PubMed ID
22341742 View in PubMed
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Low IQ has become less important as a risk factor for early disability pension. A longitudinal population-based study across two decades among Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270278
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Jun;69(6):563-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Nina Karnehed
Finn Rasmussen
Karin Modig
Source
J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Jun;69(6):563-7
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Distribution
Cognition Disorders - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Disability Evaluation
Disabled persons - statistics & numerical data
Educational Status
Humans
Insurance, Disability - standards - statistics & numerical data
Intelligence
Male
Retirement - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Low IQ has been shown to be an important risk factor for disability pension (DP) but whether the importance has changed over time remains unclear. It can be hypothesised that IQ has become more important for DP over time in parallel with a more demanding working life. The aim of this study was to investigate the relative risk of low IQ on the risk of DP before age 30 between 1971 and 2006.
This study covered the entire Swedish male population born between 1951 and 1976, eligible for military conscription. Information about the study subjects was obtained by linkage of national registers. Associations between IQ and DP over time were analysed by descriptive measures (mean values, proportions, etc) and by Cox proportional hazards regressions. Analyses were adjusted for educational level.
The cohort consisted of 1 229 346 men. The proportion that received DP before the age of 30 increased over time, from 0.68% in the cohort born between 1951 and 1955 to 0.95% in the cohort born between 1971 and 1976. The relative risk of low IQ (adjusted for education) in relation to high IQ decreased from 5.68 (95% CI 4.71 to 6.85) in the cohort born between 1951 and 1955 to 2.62 (95% CI 2.25 to 3.05) in the cohort born between 1971 and 1976.
Our results gave no support to the idea that the importance of low IQ for the risk of DP has increased in parallel with increasing demands in working life. In fact, low IQ has become less important as a risk factor for DP compared with high IQ between the early 1970s and 1990s. An increased educational level over the same time period is likely to be part of the explanation.
PubMed ID
25595288 View in PubMed
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The educational gradient of obesity increases among Swedish pregnant women: a register-based study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267040
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:315
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Helena Bjermo
Simon Lind
Finn Rasmussen
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:315
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Africa - ethnology
Body mass index
Educational Status
Female
Humans
Linear Models
Middle East - ethnology
Obesity - epidemiology - ethnology
Pregnancy
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology
Prenatal Care
Prevalence
Registries
Social Class
Sweden - epidemiology
United States
Young Adult
Abstract
Overweight or obesity is detrimental during pregnancy. We studied time trends in the educational gradient of overweight and obesity among pregnant women. Differences in overweight and obesity by area of residence and country of birth were also examined.
The study was based on the Swedish Medical Birth Register between 1992 and 2010 and included 1,569,173 singleton pregnancies. Weight and height were registered during the first visit at the antenatal-care clinic. Data on education, country of birth, and area of residence were derived from registers with national coverage.
In 2008-2010, 32% of Swedish nulliparous pregnant women were overweight or obese. The relative risk of obesity among lower educated women compared to women with higher education increased from 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-1.97) in 1992-1995 to 2.09 (95% confidence interval: 2.05-2.14) in 2008-2010. There was an inverse linear relationship between risks of overweight or obesity, and population density and type of residence municipality. An excessive gestational weight gain according to the American Institute of Medicine was observed among 57-63% of the overweight or obese women, but there were small differences by education. Pregnant women born in Africa, Middle East or Latin America had higher risks of being overweight or obese compared to women born in Sweden.
The prevalence of obesity as well as the social inequalities in obesity during pregnancy increased in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Further understanding of social inequalities and geographical differentials in health behaviours of pregnant women is needed when planning public health interventions.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25886465 View in PubMed
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Educational gains in cause-specific mortality: Accounting for cognitive ability and family-level confounders using propensity score weighting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291626
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2017 07; 184:49-56
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
07-2017
Author
Govert E Bijwaard
Mikko Myrskylä
Per Tynelius
Finn Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI-KNAW/University of Groningen), PO Box 11650, 2502 AR, The Hague, The Netherlands. Electronic address: bijwaard@nidi.nl.
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2017 07; 184:49-56
Date
07-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Cause of Death - trends
Educational Status
Employment - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Myocardial Ischemia - epidemiology
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Propensity Score
Registries - statistics & numerical data
Social Class
Stroke - epidemiology
Sweden - epidemiology
Veterans - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
A negative educational gradient has been found for many causes of death. This association may be partly explained by confounding factors that affect both educational attainment and mortality. We correct the cause-specific educational gradient for observed individual background and unobserved family factors using an innovative method based on months lost due to a specific cause of death re-weighted by the probability of attaining a higher educational level. We use data on men with brothers from the Swedish Military Conscription Registry (1951-1983), linked to administrative registers. This dataset of some 700,000 men allows us to distinguish between five education levels and many causes of death. The empirical results reveal that raising the educational level from primary to tertiary would result in an additional 20 months of survival between ages 18 and 63. This improvement in mortality is mainly attributable to fewer deaths from external causes. The highly educated gain more than nine months due to the reduction in deaths from external causes, but gain only two months due to the reduction in cancer mortality and four months due to the reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Ignoring confounding would lead to an underestimation of the gains by educational attainment, especially for the less educated. Our results imply that if the education distribution of 50,000 Swedish men from the 1951 cohort were replaced with that of the corresponding 1983 cohort, 22% of the person-years that were lost to death between ages 18 and 63 would have been saved for this cohort.
PubMed ID
28501020 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.