The study aimed to describe the postgraduate training of the general practitioners (GPs) in communication and psychiatric counselling.
GPs in Aarhus County, Denmark, received a mailed questionnaire about psychiatric hospital training, participation in courses and Balint groups (psychiatric supervision), and their need for further training.
The questionnaire was returned by 320 (74.4%) GPs. Almost all GPs had received some kind of postgraduate training although to a very varying extent. Almost half had taken courses of more than three days' duration, and half were members of a psychiatric supervision group. Two-thirds of the GPs thought they needed further training. The need was independent of the GP's evaluation of his/her own psychiatric education.
Conditions relating to the ear, nose and throat are very frequent problems encountered by general pediatricians. Similarly, a major percentage of patients seen and operated on by the general otolaryngologist are of the pediatric age group. The pilot study demonstrated that pediatric program directors of both specialties in Canada have identified a deficiency of cross-training and desire the need for more cross-training. The aim of this study was to survey practicing physicians of both specialties for their input.
Surveys were sent to a large cross-section of pediatricians and otolaryngologists in Canada. They were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their training experience, their desired training, important topics and general comments. Demographic data were collected including generalist versus sub-specialist, the year that residency was completed and country of training. Results were tabulated and analyzed.
The response rate was high, being 70.6% and 76.2% for pediatricians and otolaryngologists, respectively. One hundred percent of pediatricians indicated that formal training by otolaryngologists was necessary, while 95% of otolaryngologists indicate a need for formal training by pediatricians during residency. Pediatricians desire more training using all three educational venues, namely lectures, clinics and rotations. While they are receiving lectures more often, they indicate that clinics are the most important mode of education. Otolaryngologists desire more formal training by pediatricians in the areas of lectures and clinics. They indicate the most important mode of education is lectures. There was no significant difference between generalists and sub-specialists or based on country of training for either group. There is some indication, in both specialties, of an increase of cross-training occurring within the past five years.
This study has shown that there is a perceived deficiency of cross-training between the two specialties. Both pediatricians and otolaryngologists have indicated that they need more formal cross-training. This is a very important area to address, as this study relates directly to the optimum health of children in Canada and worldwide.
Across practice settings, most nursing care is provided to older adults. Yet most nurses receive limited education to care for older adults, especially those with complex needs. A Knowledge Exchange Institute for Geriatric Nursing Education brought together 31 Canadian nursing faculty members and nursing doctoral students and provided them with tools and resources to enhance teaching and curriculum in baccalaureate nursing programs. Guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Process model, participants received usable summaries of the best research evidence about care for older adults and tools to increase the likelihood of successful integration of these resources in their teaching and curriculum. Feedback from participants indicates that their personal goals and the goals of the Knowledge Exchange were met. Through a public interactive wiki, participants and others will continue the process of knowledge exchange to improve nursing education and nursing care for older persons.
BACKGROUND: Modern information technology enables alternative strategies for education and communication. This is a description of a project for systematic utilisation of the internet for distant meetings and professional communication within geriatric medicine. METHOD: A net site has been developed and is being used for the distribution of professionally relevant material, as well as visual aids for audio conferences. The hospitals take their turn giving introductions, and active audience participation is a must. The project has been assessed through a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: 88 audio conferences have been carried out since September 1998. The number of participating hospitals has increased from 6 to 28; the audience varies from 40 to 90 per session. On average, 56% are doctors, 19% nurses, 20% physiotherapists or occupational therapists, 4% have other backgrounds. 100 persons returned the questionnaire (response rate 86%). At an ordinal scale from 1 (bad) to 5 (good), respondents' median global assessment of the project was 4 (interquartile range 3-4); they were particularly satisfied with the professional standard of the lectures, and they found it motivating to work in a field in which modern information technology is put to use. Their use of the net site for other purposes than the audio conferences was very limited. INTERPRETATION: Health professionals in the field of geriatrics saw the project as a help in keeping themselves up to date. Audio conferences may supplement intramural educational sessions but cannot substitute for them.
We produced continuing education material in physical rehabilitation using a variety of electronic media. We compared four methods of delivering the learning modules: in person with a computer projector, desktop videoconferencing, Web pages and CD-ROM. Health-care workers at eight community hospitals and two nursing homes were asked to participate in the project. A total of 394 questionnaires were received for all modalities: 73 for in-person sessions, 50 for desktop conferencing, 227 for Web pages and 44 for CD-ROM. This represents a 100% response rate from the in-person, desktop conferencing and CD-ROM groups; the response rate for the Web group is unknown, since the questionnaires were completed online. Almost all participants found the modules to be helpful in their work. The CD-ROM group gave significantly higher ratings than the Web page group, although all four learning modalities received high ratings. A combination of all four modalities would be required to provide the best possible learning opportunity.
What is the potential of courses designed for nursing students to meet the learning priorities of other disciplines? Who could benefit? Nursing students at Brandon University interested in the 'community as client' concept requested a course that focused on the health of rural residents and the communities in which they live. Questions about (1) measuring the health of rural populations; (2) comparing health status, health resources and health care utilization of rural and urban populations; and (3) determining the health of rural communities emerged. As a result the course, 'Health of Rural Populations and Communities', was created. The Director of the Rural Development Institute examined the syllabus for the new course and asked that Rural Development students be allowed to enroll. This paper focuses on the challenges and opportunities for nursing education to address learning needs of other disciplines by sharing health and nursing knowledge. In doing so the learning of nursing students is also advanced. The development and delivery of a rural health course is used as a case study to illustrate the potential of this approach for nursing and interdisciplinary education.
Distance education is an exploding phenomenon that allows people to pursue higher education on their own time, at a pace that meets their needs, in locations where there are no colleges and universities, or where there is not a desired program of study. This study examined the use of distance education in undergraduate dietetic education programs and the opportunities for obtaining an undergraduate degree in dietetics solely via distance education. A survey was sent to all directors (n = 279) of undergraduate programs accredited/approved by the Commission on Accreditation for Dietetics Education to determine the current status and projected future use of distance education in their institutions' on-campus programs. The survey had a 54% response rate. Approximately 32% (n = 150) of undergraduate dietetics programs offer distance education courses in some format. Institutions that offer nondietetics distance education courses were more likely to offer dietetics distance education courses. The most common distance education format utilized in dietetics was 100% Internet courses (48%). The most common distance education dietetics course offered was a basic or introductory nutrition course (31%). From the data of courses offered, or permitted to be transferred, it would not be possible for a student to complete an undergraduate degree in dietetics solely via distance education methodologies at the time this study was conducted.
According to a Concept of continuous special education, postgraduate special training remains an essential link in creating a widely educated doctor with humanistic and natural-science ideology, high culture and knowledge of contemporary circumstances.