BACKGROUND: Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. METHODS: The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886-1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969-99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0-4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.5, respectively). There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.3). CONCLUSION: In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.
There is limited information on clinical manifestations of atopic eczema (AE) and non-AE in teenagers.
To describe the characteristics of adolescent eczema in the general population and to identify potential differences between AE and non-AE in teenagers.
Overall, 3108 teenagers were included from the population-based BAMSE cohort and 2529 of these teenagers provided blood samples for analysis of specific IgE. At age 16 years, the teenagers answered questionnaires regarding the symptoms of eczema, asthma and rhinitis for the previous year.
The prevalence of eczema in adolescence was 9·6% (n = 297). More girls than boys had eczema (12·5% vs. 6·5%; P
In contrast to asthma and rhinitis, few studies among adults investigating the prevalence and risk factors of eczema have been published.
To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of eczema among adults in West Sweden. A further aim was to study the associations between asthma, rhinitis and eczema.
A questionnaire on respiratory health was mailed in 2008 to 30,000 randomly selected subjects in West Sweden aged 16-75 years; 62% responded. The questionnaire included questions about eczema, respiratory symptoms and diseases and their possible determinants. A subgroup of 669 subjects underwent skin prick testing against common airborne allergens.
'Eczema ever' was reported by 40·7% and 'current eczema' by 11·5%. Both conditions were significantly more common among women. The prevalence decreased with increasing age. The coexistence of both asthma and rhinitis with eczema was common. The main risk factors were family history of allergy and asthma. The dominant environmental risk factor was occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes. Smoking increased the risk. Eczema was associated with urbanization, while growing up on a farm was associated with a decreased risk. Added one by one to the multivariate model, asthma, allergic rhinitis and any positive skin prick test were associated with eczema.
Eczema among adults is a common disease with more women than men having and having had eczema. Eczema is associated with other atopic diseases and with airway symptoms. Hereditary factors and exposure to gas, dust and fumes are associated with eczema.
The exact nature and direction of the association between a history of allergic diseases and lung cancer risk remain controversial.
To examine the association between self-reported history of allergic diseases and lung cancer using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in the Montreal metropolitan area (1996-2002).
The study is based on interview data collected from 1,169 incident lung cancer cases and 1,486 controls. Separate logistic regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of lung cancer, using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), in subjects with vs without asthma, eczema, or hay fever after adjustment for several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, including smoking.
For asthma, the OR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.65-1.24), which decreased to 0.76 (95% CI 0.54-1.08) for subjects whose onset was more than 2 years before lung cancer diagnosis or interview and then to 0.64 (95% CI 0.44-0.93) when restricted to subjects who reported using medication for their asthma. For eczema, the point estimate was 0.73 (95% CI 0.48-1.12), which decreased to 0.63 (95% CI 0.38-1.07) when considering eczema only in those who reported medication use. Hay fever showed the strongest inverse association with lung cancer (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.24-0.59).
All 3 allergic diseases examined were inversely associated with lung cancer, although the strength of the protective effect varied. History of allergic diseases seems to have a protective role in lung cancer incidence, after consideration of potential confounders, including lifetime smoking history.
When etiological relationship is of interest, the incidence rate is a preferred measure. The aim of the present retrospective study was to estimate the incidence rate of self-reported hand eczema in a sample from the general population and to study the relation of this to age, sex, and atopy. A questionnaire was mailed to 3000 individuals aged 20-65 y, randomly selected from the population register of Göteborg, Sweden. This gave a response rate of 73.9%. Questions were asked about ever having had hand eczema, time of onset of the disease, history of childhood eczema, and history of asthma/hay fever. The crude incidence rate of self-reported hand eczema was 5.5 cases per 1000 person-years (females 7.1 and males 4.0). There was no difference, however, in incidence rate between women and men above 30 y of age. In a Poisson regression analysis, female sex, childhood eczema, and asthma/hay fever were all significantly associated with hand eczema, but only at ages below 30 y. A moderate influence of recall bias and a probable tendency to underreport imply that the incidence rates presented are to be considered as minimum rates.