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24 records – page 1 of 3.

An ecological risk assessment model for Arctic oil spills from a subsea pipeline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296515
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:1117-1127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Ehsan Arzaghi
Rouzbeh Abbassi
Vikram Garaniya
Jonathan Binns
Faisal Khan
Author Affiliation
National Centre for Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics, Australian Maritime College (AMC), University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:1117-1127
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bayes Theorem
Ecology - methods
Models, Theoretical
Petroleum Pollution
Risk Assessment - methods
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Abstract
There is significant risk associated with increased oil and gas exploration activities in the Arctic Ocean. This paper presents a probabilistic methodology for Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of accidental oil spills in this region. A fugacity approach is adopted to model the fate and transport of released oil, taking into account the uncertainty of input variables. This assists in predicting the 95th percentile Predicted Exposure Concentration (PEC95%) of pollutants in different media. The 5th percentile Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC5%) is obtained from toxicity data for 19 species. A model based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) is developed to assess the ecological risk posed to the aquatic community. The model enables accounting for the occurrence likelihood of input parameters, as well as analyzing the time-variable risk profile caused by seasonal changes. It is observed through the results that previous probabilistic methods developed for ERA can be overestimating the risk level.
PubMed ID
30301010 View in PubMed
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An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature93021
Source
Environ Pollut. 2008 Dec;156(3):980-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Beketov Mikhail A
Liess Matthias
Author Affiliation
UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of System Ecotoxicology, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany. mikhail.beketov@ufz.de
Source
Environ Pollut. 2008 Dec;156(3):980-7
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Biodiversity
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Food chain
Hazardous Substances - toxicity
Invertebrates - drug effects - physiology
Organic Chemicals - toxicity
Rivers
Siberia
Species Specificity
Water Pollutants, Chemical - toxicity
Abstract
Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR(organic) (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR(organic) is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR(organic) as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants.
PubMed ID
18547697 View in PubMed
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A behavioral ecology approach to traffic accidents: interspecific variation in causes of traffic casualties among birds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101738
Source
Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2011 Apr;32(2):115-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Anders Pape Møller
Helga Erritzøe
Johannes Erritzøe
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology, Systematics and Evolution, University of Paris-South, Orsay Cedex, France. anders.moller@u-psud.fr
Source
Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2011 Apr;32(2):115-27
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Birds - classification - physiology
Death
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Models, Biological
Phylogeny
Risk factors
Abstract
Birds and other animals are frequently killed by cars, causing the death of many million individuals per year. Why some species are killed more often than others has never been investigated. In this work hypothesized that risk taking behavior may affect the probability of certain kinds of individuals being killed disproportionately often. Furthermore, behavior of individuals on roads, abundance, habitat preferences, breeding sociality, and health status may all potentially affect the risk of being killed on roads. We used information on the abundance of road kills and the abundance in the surrounding environment of 50 species of birds obtained during regular censuses in 2001-2006 in a rural site in Denmark to test these predictions. The frequency of road kills increased linearly with abundance, while the proportion of individuals sitting on the road or flying low across the road only explained little additional variation in frequency of road casualties. After having accounted for abundance, we found that species with a short flight distance and hence taking greater risks when approached by a potential cause of danger were killed disproportionately often. In addition, solitary species, species with a high prevalence of Plasmodium infection, and species with a large bursa of Fabricius for their body size had a high susceptibility to being killed by cars. These findings suggest that a range of different factors indicative of risk-taking behavior, visual acuity and health status cause certain bird species to be susceptible to casualties due to cars.
PubMed ID
21509957 View in PubMed
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Climate change and preventive medicine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95580
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Dec;14(6):726-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Faergeman Ole
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. ferryman@mail.tele.dk
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Dec;14(6):726-9
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Climate
Ecology - methods
Humans
Morbidity - trends
Preventive Medicine - methods
Public Health
World Health
Abstract
Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery disease do not result from climate change, but they do share causes with climate change. Burning fossil fuels, for example, is the major source of greenhouse gases, but it also makes pervasive physical inactivity possible. Similarly, modern agriculture's enormous production of livestock contributes substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, and it is the source of many of our most energy-rich foods. Physicians and societies of medical professionals have a particular responsibility, therefore, to contribute to the public discourse about climate change and what to do about it.
Notes
ReprintIn: Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Aug 25;170(35):2667-818761852
PubMed ID
18043291 View in PubMed
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Climate change: is this what it takes to save the world?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95633
Source
Nature. 2007 May 10;447(7141):132-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-10-2007

The concentration-coverage curve: a tool for ecological studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152556
Source
Health Rep. 2008 Dec;19(4):57-62
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2008
Author
Philippe Finès
Author Affiliation
Health Information and Research Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0T6. Philippe.Fines@statcan.gc.ca
Source
Health Rep. 2008 Dec;19(4):57-62
Date
Dec-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Demography
Ecology - methods
Humans
Indians, North American
Inuits
ROC Curve
Reproducibility of Results
Research Design
Research Subjects - classification
Statistics as Topic - methods
Abstract
A selective approach may be used in an ecological study where the aim is to choose a subset of units of analysis (UAs) and produce interpretations about a population of interest (PI) based solely on those UAs. The results for the PI will be reliable if that population is concentrated in the selected UAs and rare in other UAs. This article presents a graphical tool that helps determine whether these conditions are satisfied.
Data on the Inuit and Métis ancestry populations from the 1996 Census of Canada are used for illustrative purposes. Based on a classification statistics table, a concentration-coverage curve can be created for a given PI. The shape of the curve indicates whether it is possible to choose a threshold that will yield both adequate concentration and adequate coverage of the PI.
The concentration-coverage curve shows that, among Aboriginal peoples living in rural areas, the Inuit population is classifiable, but the Metis population is not.
This method can be applied to any ecological study focussing on the proportion of individuals sharing a single characteristic defined by a binary variable.
PubMed ID
19226928 View in PubMed
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Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95784
Source
Environ Pollut. 2005 Oct;137(3):428-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
Rozema Jelte
Boelen Peter
Blokker Peter
Author Affiliation
Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl
Source
Environ Pollut. 2005 Oct;137(3):428-42
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antarctic Regions
Arctic Regions
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Greenhouse Effect
Ozone
Plant Physiological Phenomena - radiation effects
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially, (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution.
PubMed ID
16005756 View in PubMed
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Do healthy food baskets assess food security?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature183764
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2003 Spring-Summer;24(2-3):65-9
Publication Type
Article
Author
Tasnim Nathoo
Jean Shoveller
Author Affiliation
Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, James Mather Building, 5804 Fairview Avenue, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z3. tasmin@interchange.ubc.ca
Source
Chronic Dis Can. 2003 Spring-Summer;24(2-3):65-9
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Costs and Cost Analysis
Ecology - methods
Food Habits
Food Supply - economics - standards
Humans
Nutrition Assessment
Nutrition Surveys
Population Surveillance - methods
Residence Characteristics
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Developing indicators to measure the different facets of food security presents numerous conceptual and methodological challenges. This paper adopts an ecological framework to reflect on these issues through an examination of the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) tool. The HFB tool is used to measure food security conditions by determining the cost and availability of a group of foods in a shopping basket across a range of stores in different regions and neighbourhoods. The paper discusses the ability of the HFB tool to describe micro-, meso- and macro-level influences on food security and the use of the ecological model in developing complementary and alternative strategies for understanding and monitoring food security.
PubMed ID
12959676 View in PubMed
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Ecological analysis of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and the incidence of stroke in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature142950
Source
Stroke. 2010 Jul;41(7):1319-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Julie Y M Johnson
Brian H Rowe
Paul J Villeneuve
Author Affiliation
Air Health Effects Division, Health Canada, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
Source
Stroke. 2010 Jul;41(7):1319-25
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - adverse effects - analysis
Alberta - epidemiology
Ecology - methods
Female
Humans
Incidence
Inhalation Exposure - adverse effects - analysis
Male
Particulate Matter - adverse effects - analysis
Socioeconomic Factors
Stroke - epidemiology - etiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Long-term air pollution effects on stroke incidence have not been examined extensively. We investigated the associations between ambient pollution and the incidence of stroke, as well as stroke subtypes, in a northern Canadian city surrounded by energy-sector pollution sources.
Stroke data from an administrative database from 2003 through 2007 were used to estimate annual incidence rates within small geographic regions within Edmonton, Canada. Air pollution levels for each region were estimated from continuous fixed-site monitoring stations in and around Edmonton. We fit models estimating stroke risk in relation to pollution levels; risks were adjusted for age, sex, income, social deprivation, and other factors.
Between 2003 and 2007, the average 5-year concentration of NO(2) and CO was positively associated with the incidence of stroke, particularly for hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic stroke subtypes (NO(2): hemorrhagic stroke relative risk=1.46; 95% CI, 1.19-1.80; nonhemorrhagic stroke relative risk=1.36; 95% CI, 1.19-1.56). However, these estimates of risk diminished after controlling for the ecological measures of income and deprivation. Adjustment for ecologically derived indices of smoking, hypertension, and body mass index did not alter the estimates of risk in any meaningful way.
Although long-term NO(2) and CO levels were positively associated with a higher incidence of stroke in the entire study area, the risk estimates were strongly attenuated by household income levels. Further research that incorporates individual-level risk factor data would improve our understanding of the relation of longer-term exposures to ambient air pollution and stroke outcomes.
PubMed ID
20538697 View in PubMed
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Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265433
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112557
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Matthias Schröter
Graciela M Rusch
David N Barton
Stefan Blumentrath
Björn Nordén
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112557
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Climate
Computer simulation
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Ecology - methods
Forestry
Forests
Geography
Norway
Abstract
Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25393951 View in PubMed
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24 records – page 1 of 3.