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What is the optimum sample size for the study of peatland testate amoeba assemblages?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature287614
Source
Eur J Protistol. 2017 Oct;61(Pt A):85-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2017
Author
Yuri A Mazei
Andrey N Tsyganov
Anton S Esaulov
Alexander Yu Tychkov
Richard J Payne
Source
Eur J Protistol. 2017 Oct;61(Pt A):85-91
Date
Oct-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Amoeba - physiology
Biodiversity
Ecology - methods
Russia
Sample Size
Sphagnopsida - parasitology
Wetlands
Abstract
Testate amoebae are widely used in ecological and palaeoecological studies of peatlands, particularly as indicators of surface wetness. To ensure data are robust and comparable it is important to consider methodological factors which may affect results. One significant question which has not been directly addressed in previous studies is how sample size (expressed here as number of Sphagnum stems) affects data quality. In three contrasting locations in a Russian peatland we extracted samples of differing size, analysed testate amoebae and calculated a number of widely-used indices: species richness, Simpson diversity, compositional dissimilarity from the largest sample and transfer function predictions of water table depth. We found that there was a trend for larger samples to contain more species across the range of commonly-used sample sizes in ecological studies. Smaller samples sometimes failed to produce counts of testate amoebae often considered minimally adequate. It seems likely that analyses based on samples of different sizes may not produce consistent data. Decisions about sample size need to reflect trade-offs between logistics, data quality, spatial resolution and the disturbance involved in sample extraction. For most common ecological applications we suggest that samples of more than eight Sphagnum stems are likely to be desirable.
PubMed ID
28992522 View in PubMed
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Species Distribution Modeling of Deep Pelagic Eels.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature290779
Source
Integr Comp Biol. 2016 10; 56(4):524-30
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Date
10-2016
Author
Shannon C DeVaney
Author Affiliation
Los Angeles Pierce College devanesc@piercecollege.edu.
Source
Integr Comp Biol. 2016 10; 56(4):524-30
Date
10-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Keywords
Animal Distribution - physiology
Animals
Ecology - methods
Eels - physiology
Environment
Models, Biological
Software
Abstract
The ocean's midwaters (the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones) make up the largest living space on the planet, but are undersampled and relatively poorly understood. The true distribution of many midwater species, let alone the abiotic factors most important in determining that distribution, is not well known. Because collecting specimens and data from the deep ocean is expensive and logistically difficult, it would be useful to be able to predict where species of interest are likely to occur so that sampling effort can be concentrated in appropriate areas. The distribution of two representative midwater fishes, the gulper eel Eurypharynx pelecanoides and the bobtail eel Cyema atrum (Teleostei: Saccopharyngiformes), were modeled with MaxEnt software to examine the viability of species distribution modeling (SDM) for globally distributed midwater fishes using currently available environmental data from the ocean surface and bottom. These species were chosen because they are relatively abundant, easily recognized, and unlikely to have been misidentified in database records, and are true midwater fishes, not known to undertake significant vertical diurnal migration. Models for both species show a generally worldwide distribution with some exceptions, including the Southern Ocean and Bering Sea. Variable contributions show that surface and bottom environmental variables correlate with species presence. Both species are more likely to be found in areas with low levels of silicate. SDM is a promising method for better understanding the ecology of midwater organisms.
PubMed ID
27252208 View in PubMed
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[Status and actualization of tasks to improve the scientific-methodological and regulatory frameworks in the field of human ecology and environmental health].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature105637
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Sep-Oct;(5):4-10
Publication Type
Article
Author
Iu A Rakhmanin
O O Sinitsyna
Source
Gig Sanit. 2013 Sep-Oct;(5):4-10
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Ecology - methods
Environmental health
Environmental pollution - prevention & control
Humans
Program Evaluation
Russia
Abstract
Contemporary factors that affect the health of the population have been analyzed. There was shown the growing activity of chemical pollution of the environment. Therefore, in order to prevent the growth of negative health and environment consequences caused by increased levels of exposure to chemicals preventive potential for solutions of this complex problem and all strenuous efforts to assist possibly of the sound management of the chemicals should be enhanced. Problematic issues of harmonization of the Russian normative and guidance documents have been actualized. Perspective directions of science development in the field of human ecology and environmental health are suggested.
PubMed ID
24340900 View in PubMed
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A behavioral ecology approach to traffic accidents: interspecific variation in causes of traffic casualties among birds.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature101738
Source
Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2011 Apr;32(2):115-27
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2011
Author
Anders Pape Møller
Helga Erritzøe
Johannes Erritzøe
Author Affiliation
Department of Ecology, Systematics and Evolution, University of Paris-South, Orsay Cedex, France. anders.moller@u-psud.fr
Source
Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2011 Apr;32(2):115-27
Date
Apr-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Behavior, Animal
Birds - classification - physiology
Death
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Models, Biological
Phylogeny
Risk factors
Abstract
Birds and other animals are frequently killed by cars, causing the death of many million individuals per year. Why some species are killed more often than others has never been investigated. In this work hypothesized that risk taking behavior may affect the probability of certain kinds of individuals being killed disproportionately often. Furthermore, behavior of individuals on roads, abundance, habitat preferences, breeding sociality, and health status may all potentially affect the risk of being killed on roads. We used information on the abundance of road kills and the abundance in the surrounding environment of 50 species of birds obtained during regular censuses in 2001-2006 in a rural site in Denmark to test these predictions. The frequency of road kills increased linearly with abundance, while the proportion of individuals sitting on the road or flying low across the road only explained little additional variation in frequency of road casualties. After having accounted for abundance, we found that species with a short flight distance and hence taking greater risks when approached by a potential cause of danger were killed disproportionately often. In addition, solitary species, species with a high prevalence of Plasmodium infection, and species with a large bursa of Fabricius for their body size had a high susceptibility to being killed by cars. These findings suggest that a range of different factors indicative of risk-taking behavior, visual acuity and health status cause certain bird species to be susceptible to casualties due to cars.
PubMed ID
21509957 View in PubMed
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Ecosystem services and opportunity costs shift spatial priorities for conserving forest biodiversity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265433
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112557
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Matthias Schröter
Graciela M Rusch
David N Barton
Stefan Blumentrath
Björn Nordén
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(11):e112557
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biodiversity
Climate
Computer simulation
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Ecology - methods
Forestry
Forests
Geography
Norway
Abstract
Inclusion of spatially explicit information on ecosystem services in conservation planning is a fairly new practice. This study analyses how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features can affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints can change spatial priorities for conservation. We created spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in the county of Telemark (Norway) with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software, Marxan with Zones. We combined a mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone). Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services may not be a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets we set in our scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25393951 View in PubMed
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An ecological risk assessment model for Arctic oil spills from a subsea pipeline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296515
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:1117-1127
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Oct-2018
Author
Ehsan Arzaghi
Rouzbeh Abbassi
Vikram Garaniya
Jonathan Binns
Faisal Khan
Author Affiliation
National Centre for Maritime Engineering and Hydrodynamics, Australian Maritime College (AMC), University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia.
Source
Mar Pollut Bull. 2018 Oct; 135:1117-1127
Date
Oct-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Arctic Regions
Bayes Theorem
Ecology - methods
Models, Theoretical
Petroleum Pollution
Risk Assessment - methods
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Abstract
There is significant risk associated with increased oil and gas exploration activities in the Arctic Ocean. This paper presents a probabilistic methodology for Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of accidental oil spills in this region. A fugacity approach is adopted to model the fate and transport of released oil, taking into account the uncertainty of input variables. This assists in predicting the 95th percentile Predicted Exposure Concentration (PEC95%) of pollutants in different media. The 5th percentile Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC5%) is obtained from toxicity data for 19 species. A model based on Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) is developed to assess the ecological risk posed to the aquatic community. The model enables accounting for the occurrence likelihood of input parameters, as well as analyzing the time-variable risk profile caused by seasonal changes. It is observed through the results that previous probabilistic methods developed for ERA can be overestimating the risk level.
PubMed ID
30301010 View in PubMed
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Effects of sea ice on Arctic biota: an emerging crisis discipline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299365
Source
Biol Lett. 2018 03; 14(3):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Date
03-2018
Author
Marc Macias-Fauria
Eric Post
Author Affiliation
School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK marc.maciasfauria@ouce.ox.ac.uk.
Source
Biol Lett. 2018 03; 14(3):
Date
03-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Keywords
Aquatic Organisms - physiology
Arctic Regions
Biota - physiology
Conservation of Natural Resources
Ecology - methods
Ice Cover
Life History Traits
Abstract
The rapid decline in Arctic sea ice (ASI) extent, area and volume during recent decades is occurring before we can understand many of the mechanisms through which ASI interacts with biological processes both at sea and on land. As a consequence, our ability to predict and manage the effects of this enormous environmental change is limited, making this a crisis discipline Here, we propose a framework to study these effects, defining direct effects as those acting on life-history events of Arctic biota, and indirect effects, where ASI acts upon biological systems through chains of events, normally involving other components of the physical system and/or biotic interactions. Given the breadth and complexity of ASI's effects on Arctic biota, Arctic research requires a truly multidisciplinary approach to address this issue. In the absence of effective global efforts to tackle anthropogenic global warming, ASI will likely continue to decrease, compromising the conservation of many ASI-related taxonomic groups and ecosystems. Mitigation actions will rely heavily on the knowledge acquired on the mechanisms and components involved with the biological effects of ASI.
PubMed ID
29563280 View in PubMed
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Climate change and preventive medicine.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95580
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Dec;14(6):726-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2007
Author
Faergeman Ole
Author Affiliation
Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. ferryman@mail.tele.dk
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Dec;14(6):726-9
Date
Dec-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control
Climate
Ecology - methods
Humans
Morbidity - trends
Preventive Medicine - methods
Public Health
World Health
Abstract
Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery disease do not result from climate change, but they do share causes with climate change. Burning fossil fuels, for example, is the major source of greenhouse gases, but it also makes pervasive physical inactivity possible. Similarly, modern agriculture's enormous production of livestock contributes substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, and it is the source of many of our most energy-rich foods. Physicians and societies of medical professionals have a particular responsibility, therefore, to contribute to the public discourse about climate change and what to do about it.
Notes
ReprintIn: Ugeskr Laeger. 2008 Aug 25;170(35):2667-818761852
PubMed ID
18043291 View in PubMed
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[Medico-ecological approaches to the integrated management of water resources].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature118056
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Sep-Oct;(5):15-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
L I El'piner
Source
Gig Sanit. 2012 Sep-Oct;(5):15-8
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Drinking Water - standards
Ecology - methods
Humans
Russia
Water Resources - standards
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
The necessity of taking into account the interests of public health care informing and implementing solutions for water management has been substantiated. Scientific frameworks and regulatory sanitary legislative documents relating to various areas of water management have been considered. The possibilities and the importance of performing complex territory medical ecological forecasts of effects of changes in hydrological situation have been demonstrated.
PubMed ID
23243710 View in PubMed
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Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic and Arctic: responses of plants of polar terrestrial ecosystems to enhanced UV-B, an overview.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature95784
Source
Environ Pollut. 2005 Oct;137(3):428-42
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2005
Author
Rozema Jelte
Boelen Peter
Blokker Peter
Author Affiliation
Department of Systems Ecology, Institute of Ecological Science, Climate Centre, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. jelte.rozema@ecology.falw.vu.nl
Source
Environ Pollut. 2005 Oct;137(3):428-42
Date
Oct-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antarctic Regions
Arctic Regions
Ecology - methods
Ecosystem
Greenhouse Effect
Ozone
Plant Physiological Phenomena - radiation effects
Ultraviolet Rays - adverse effects
Abstract
Depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic has been re-occurring yearly since 1974, leading to enhanced UV-B radiation. Arctic ozone depletion has been observed since 1990. Ozone recovery has been predicted by 2050, but no signs of recovery occur. Here we review responses of polar plants to experimentally varied UV-B through supplementation or exclusion. In supplementation studies comparing ambient and above ambient UV-B, no effect on growth occurred. UV-B-induced DNA damage, as measured in polar bryophytes, is repaired overnight by photoreactivation. With UV exclusion, growth at near ambient may be less than at below ambient UV-B levels, which relates to the UV response curve of polar plants. UV-B screening foils also alter PAR, humidity, and temperature and interactions of UV with environmental factors may occur. Plant phenolics induced by solar UV-B, as in pollen, spores and lignin, may serve as a climate proxy for past UV. Since the Antarctic and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems differ essentially, (e.g. higher species diversity and more trophic interactions in the Arctic), generalization of polar plant responses to UV-B needs caution.
PubMed ID
16005756 View in PubMed
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25 records – page 1 of 3.