The aim of the study was to examine signs and symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients with eating disorders (ED) and to compare the prevalence with that in sex- and age-matched controls. During a 12-month period, all patients (n = 65) who accepted and initiated psychiatric/medical outpatient treatment in an Eating Disorder Clinic/Erikbergsgården, Orebro, Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Of the ED patients, 54 (83%) accepted participation. ED patients and controls underwent a comprehensive TMD questionnaire and clinical examination. Reported symptoms such as headache, facial pain,jaw tiredness, tongue thrusting, and lump feeling in the throat as well as dizziness, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances were all significantly more prevalent among ED patients compared to controls. There was also a significantly higher prevalence of clinical TMD signs in the ED patients. Analyses within the ED group showed that those who reported self-induced vomiting reported significantly more heavy feeling in the head, nausea and snoring. Those with binge eating reported significantly more heavy feeling in the head, facial pain, dizzy feeling and concentration difficulties. No significant differences regarding subjective symptoms and clinical signs of TMD were found within the ED group with respect to duration of ED. In conclusion, orofacial pain and TMD related signs and symptoms are significantly more common in ED patients than in matched control subjects. Special emphasis should be made to those who reports vomiting and/or binge eating behaviors.
In this study the prevalence of eating disorders in a population-based cohort of 89 female patients with type 1 diabetes, 14-18 y of age, was compared with that in age-matched healthy controls. Of all diabetic girls in the study area, 92% participated in the study. The majority were treated with multiple insulin injections and the mean HbA1c of the participants was 8.4%. On average, diabetic girls were 6.8 kg heavier than the controls. A two-stage design was used. The first consisted of a validated self-report questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI). Girls who had high scores were then interviewed about eating habits and mental health using a semistructured interview, the BAB-T (Assessment of Anorexia-Bulimia - Teenager version). No cases of anorexia or bulimia nervosa were found, but 15 diabetic patients (16.9%) compared with 2 control girls (2.2%), p
Eating disorders are a group of serious psychiatric disorders that affect primarily young women and can have serious consequences on their lives and their families. Eating disorders are characterized by disordered eating behaviour with desire for thinness that can result in serious physical and psychological symptoms and death. Eating disorders tend to run a chronic course. Psychiatric comorbidity and physical complications are common among eating disordered patients and these issues need to be taken into consideration during treatment. Prevalence and incidence of eating disorders appears to be increasing in Western societies and follow increased prosperity and obesity problems. There is no reason to believe that the situation is different in Iceland but research is lacking. In this review article we address the main symptoms and diagnostic criteria of three types of eating disorders, that is anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. The course and prognosis, epidemiology, and psychiatric comorbidity of eating disorders will also be presented. Finally, we discuss the services available to eating disordered patients here in Iceland and the need for further development of the services.
Retrospective data on growth and cross-sectional data on growth outcome, anthropometric measurements and energy intake have been analysed according to the presence or absence of feeding problems in 42 children with cerebral palsy (CP) between 1 and 13 years of age. The mean age for boys and girls was 5.1 and 5.9 years, respectively. The study revealed a high frequency of feeding problems (50%) and growth retardation (48%) in the group. The results of weight for height, triceps skinfold thickness and energy intake indicate that 15% of the children were undernourished at the time of study. The cross-sectional analyses showed that children with feeding problems at the time of study (n = 22) had significantly lower height for age, weight for height, triceps skinfold thickness and upper-arm circumference than children without problems (P less than 0.05). Children with feeding problems also tended to have lower energy intake, but the differences were not significant. The feeding problems were most frequent among the severely disabled children. This study has shown that the presence of feeding problems is one important predictor of low growth outcome in children with CP. When parents report on feeding problems, feeding evaluation, training and nutritional intervention should be offered immediately. This is important for alleviating the heavy care-load for parents and health-workers and for some children it may be necessary to maintain an acceptable nutritional state.
This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults.
A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment.
The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders.
Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.