The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia,on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).
The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9 y 11 mo,SD 4 mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40 females, 52 males;mean age 9 y 9 mo,SD 3 mo). Children were included if T1DM had been diagnosed before the age of 5 years and if they were aged between 9 and 10 years at the time of study. Children were not included if their native language was not Finnish and if they had a diagnosed neurological disorder that affected their cognitive development. Among the T1DM group, 37 had and 26 had not experienced severe hypoglycaemia and 26 had avoided severe hypoglycaemia. Severe hypoglycaemia, diabetic ketoacidosis(DKA), and glycaemic control were used as T1DM-related factors. Task performance in reading, spelling, and mathematics was compared among the three groups, and the effects of the T1DM-related factors were analysed with general linear models.
The groups with (p
Comment In: Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012 May;54(5):393-422590722
The early diagnosis of dementia (EDD) enables the identification of reversible causes of dementia and allows the timely implementation of secondary preventive and therapeutic interventions. This study explores New Brunswick seniors' perceptions of the accessibility and availability of EDD services as well as their satisfaction with them while taking into account their language of use and place of residence (urban or rural).
Self-administered survey exploring perceptions of EDD services in Francophone and Anglophone seniors from rural and urban areas of New Brunswick. Univariate and bivariate analyses were carried out.
Of the 157 participants aged 65 years and over who filled out the survey and whose data were analyzed, 84 identified as Francophone, 72 of whom lived in rural areas. Bivariate analyses showed that linguistic groups were comparable with regard to their perceptions of the availability, access to, and satisfaction with EDD services. However, when taking the geographic dimension into account, linguistic intergroup and intragroup disparities were observed, notably in the areas pertaining to the type of services available in the area.
These results suggest that seniors who live in rural areas of New Brunswick are a particularly vulnerable group with perceived limited access to EDD services in their area.
As much as one-third of all total hip arthroplasties in patients younger than 60 years may be a consequence of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Screening and early treatment of neonatal instability of the hip (NIH) reduces the incidence of DDH. We examined the radiographic outcome at 1 year in children undergoing early treatment for NIH.
All children born in Malm? undergo neonatal screening for NIH, and any child with suspicion of instability is referred to our clinic. We reviewed the 1-year radiographs for infants who were referred from April 2002 through December 2007. Measurements of the acetabular index at 1 year were compared between neonatally dislocated, unstable, and stable hips.
The incidence of NIH was 7 per 1,000 live births. The referral rate was 15 per 1,000. 82% of those treated were girls. The mean acetabular index was higher in dislocated hips (25.3, 95% CI: 24.6-26.0) than in neonatally stable hips (22.7, 95% CI: 22.3-23.2). Girls had a higher mean acetabular index than boys and left hips had a higher mean acetabular index than right hips, which is in accordance with previous findings.
Even in children who are diagnosed and treated perinatally, radiographic differences in acetabular shape remain at 1 year. To determine whether this is of clinical importance, longer follow-up will be required.
Cites: J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1992 Sep;74(5):701-31527116
Acute heart failure (AHF) affects nearly every Canadian with heart failure (HF) at least once. Despite several attempts, no medical therapies have been shown to improve the natural history of AHF. In addition, the place of diagnosis of AHF is increasingly made in the outpatient setting. In this view, AHF is a moving target, and from recent registry data and from clinical trials, 5 critical lessons regarding the syndrome of AHF emerge: (1) The period of clinical instability preceding AHF may be much longer than previously thought. (2) Refinement of tools used to aid the early and accurate diagnosis of AHF will impact patient outcomes. (3) Standard supportive care of patients with AHF includes early use of diuretics with frequent reassessment in nearly all patients and supplemental vasodilators and oxygen therapy in selected cases. (4) Patients who survive presentation of AHF continue to suffer high rates of re-presentation, death, and rehospitalization following discharge from either hospital or emergency department. (5) Interventions shown to improve patient outcomes for AHF to date are related to process of care rather than new medications or devices. This report reviews the recent literature regarding the presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of AHF. Areas of future research priority are indicated and guidelines for improving treatment are provided. AHF is an important clinical area that has not been as intensively studied as chronic HF; it presents both important needs and exciting opportunities for research and innovation.
Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is challenging for the admitting physician because it is a rare but fulminant disease, usually presenting without typical symptoms, and rapid treatment is pivotal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of initial management by infectious diseases (ID) physicians vs. non-ID physicians. A total of 520 consecutive adults (>17 years old), 110 with initial ID management and 410 with non-ID management, registered in the Swedish quality registry for community-acquired ABM January 2008 to December 2013, were analysed retrospectively. Primary outcome was appropriate treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids
More than 200 primary immune deficiencies have been described. In adults, their identification can be difficult. The lack of timely referrals, diagnostic facilities, and available expertise often delay appropriate treatment. Because an increasing number of adults are now diagnosed with immune deficiencies, there is a need to better understand the immune deficits in this age group. The study objective was to analyze the diagnostic spectrum of adults with primary immune deficiency and to determine the presumptive diagnostic accuracy of the referring physicians.
We conducted a retrospective chart review over a 10-year period of all individuals referred to a dedicated center for adults with primary immune deficiency. Suspected cases were confirmed using standard clinical criteria and state of the art immune assays.
Of the 381 individuals studied, 244 were diagnosed as immune deficient. Of these, 210 had primary immune deficiency classified as novel, defined, and undefined. Forty-three patients had a prior diagnosis and were referred for follow-up care, and 201 patients were newly diagnosed. Most patients had common variable immune deficiency. Despite an apparent high index of suspicion in initiating the referrals, only one third of these patients had a prior quantitative assessment of serum immunoglobulins.
In this first known analysis of a large cohort of adults with suspected immune deficiency using established diagnostic criteria, we confirmed the diagnosis in two thirds of all patients. Our findings highlight the wide spectrum of primary immune deficiency states seen in adult medical practices and the need for increased awareness of their existence.
Early treatment for cryptorchidism may be necessary to preserve fertility. International guidelines now recommend that congenital cryptorchidism be treated with orchiopexy before age 1 year. Acquired cryptorchidism should be treated at presentation. To our knowledge the rate of adherence to these guidelines in recent years is unknown. Thus, we present data on age at cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy in recent Danish birth cohorts.
A population of 508,964 Danish boys born alive from January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2009 was identified using the Danish Civil Registration System. Five birth cohorts were defined, including 1995 to 1997, 1998 to 2000, 2001 to 2003, 2004 to 2006 and 2007 to 2009. The boys were followed in the Danish National Patient Registry for a diagnosis of cryptorchidism and for an orchiopexy procedure. Data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox regression models.
During followup 10,094 boys were diagnosed with cryptorchidism, of whom 5,473 underwent orchiopexy. Mean age at diagnosis in boys followed at least 6 years was 3.3 years (95% CI 3.3-3.4) in the 1995 to 1997 cohort, 3.1 (95% CI 3.1-3.2) in the 1998 to 2000 cohort and 2.9 (95% CI 2.8-2.9) in the 2001 to 2003 cohort while mean age at orchiopexy was 3.8 (3.7-3.9), 3.6 (3.5-3.7) and 3.3 years (3.2-3.4), respectively.
In the more recent birth cohorts of 1995 to 2009 we observed a shift toward younger age at cryptorchidism diagnosis and orchiopexy.