A comprehensive approach has been developed to the assessment of composition and properties of atmospherically deposited dust in the area affected by a copper smelter. The approach is based on the analysis of initial dust samples, dynamic leaching of water soluble fractions in a rotating coiled column (RCC) followed by the determination of recovered elements and characterization of size, morphology and elemental composition of nano-, submicron, and micron particles of dust separated using field-flow fractionation in a RCC. Three separated size fractions of dust (2 µm) were characterized by static light scattering and scanning electron microscopy, whereupon the fractions were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS (after digestion). It has been evaluated that toxic elements, which are characteristics for copper smelter emissions (As, Cu, Zn), are accumulated in fraction >2 µm. At the same time, up to 2.4, 3.1, 8.2, 6.7 g/kg of As, Cu, Zn, Pb, correspondently, were found in nanoparticles (2 µm, or the bulk sample. It may be assumed that Sn, Sb, Ag, Bi, Tl compounds are adsorbed onto the finest dust particles as compared to As, Cu, Zn compounds, which are directly emitted from the copper smelter as microparticles.
This study describes workers' exposure to fine and ultrafine particles in the production chain of ferrochromium and stainless steel during sintering, ferrochromium smelting, stainless steel melting, and hot and cold rolling operations. Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust was assessed using IOM sampler with a cellulose acetate filter (AAWP, diameter 25 mm; Millipore, Bedford, MA). Filter sampling methods were used to measure particle mass concentrations in fixed locations. Particle number concentrations and size distributions were examined using an SMPS+C sequential mobile particle sizer and counter (series 5.400, Grimm Aerosol Technik, Ainring, Germany), and a hand-held condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Incorporated, MN). The structure and elemental composition of particles were analyzed using TEM-EDXA (TEM: JEM-1220, JEOL, Tokyo, Japan; EDXA: Noran System Six, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Madison,WI). Workers' personal exposure to inhalable dust averaged 1.87, 1.40, 2.34, 0.30, and 0.17 mg m(-3) in sintering plant, ferrochromium smelter, stainless steel melting shop, hot rolling mill, and the cold rolling mill, respectively. Particle number concentrations measured using SMPS+C varied from 58 × 10(3) to 662 × 10(3) cm(-3) in the production areas, whereas concentrations measured using SMPS+C and CPC3007 in control rooms ranged from 24 × 10(3) to 243 × 10(3) cm(-3) and 5.1 × 10(3) to 97 × 10(3) cm(-3), respectively. The elemental composition and the structure of particles in different production phases varied. In the cold-rolling mill non-process particles were abundant. In other sites, chromium and iron originating from ore and recycled steel scrap were the most common elements in the particles studied. Particle mass concentrations were at the same level as that reported earlier. However, particle number measurements showed a high amount of ultrafine particles, especially in sintering, alloy smelting and melting, and tapping operations. Particle number concentration and size distribution measurements provide important information regarding exposure to ultrafine particles, which cannot be seen in particle mass measurements.
Introduction of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into traditional surface coatings (e.g., paints, lacquers, fillers) may result in new exposures to both workers and consumers and possibly also a new risk to their health. During finishing and renovation, such products may also be a substantial source of exposure to ENPs or aggregates thereof. This study investigates the particle size distributions (5.6?nm-19.8?µm) and the total number of dust particles generated during sanding of ENP-doped paints, lacquers, and fillers as compared to their conventional counterparts. In all products, the dust emissions from sanding were found to consist of five size modes: three modes under 1?µm and two modes around 1 and 2?µm. Corrected for the emission from the sanding machine, the sanding dust, was dominated by 100-300?nm size particles, whereas the mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the micrometer modes. Adding ENPs to the studied products only vaguely affected the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes in the sanding dust when compared to their reference products. However, we observed considerable differences in the number concentrations in the different size modes, but still without revealing a clear effect of ENPs on dust emissions from sanding.
The purpose of this field study was to compare an Estonian dust sampling method, a method also used in other former East Block countries, with a Swedish method and to estimate inter-method agreement with statistical analyses. The Estonian standard method (ESM), used to assess exposure in Estonia since the early 1950s, is based on a strategy where air samples are collected for 10 minutes every hour over a full shift. This method was compared to a Swedish standard method (SSM), a modified NIOSH method, comparable to international standards, where one air sample is collected during a full shift. The study was carried out at a cement plant that in the beginning of the 1990s was subjected to an epidemiological study, including collection of exposure data. The results of the analysis from 31 clusters of parallel samples of the two methods, when dust consisting of Portland cement was collected, showed a relatively weak correlation between the SSM and the ESM, ri = 0.81 (Pearson's intra-class correlation coefficient). A conversion factor between the two methods was estimated, where SSM is 0.69 times ESM and the limits of agreement are 0.25 and 1.84, respectively. These results indicate a substantial inter-method difference. We therefore recommend that measurements obtained from the two methods should not be used interchangeably. Because the present study is of limited extent, our findings are confined to the operations studied and further studies covering other exposure situations will be needed.
The results of instrumental studies of the dispersion and component composition of the solid component of the dust gaseous emissions from industrial stationary sources of engineering and metallurgical enterprises are presented. Dust and gas mixtures were established to contain up to 80% fractions with a particle size less than 10 microns (PM10), and 40% of fractions with size smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). In the composition of the dusts particles in the nano-sized range have been identified. The main chemical components of dusts are iron, silicon, aluminum and their oxides, but in the set of dusts manganese, chromium, vanadium, and other toxic metals account for 25% of the weight. Accounting disperse composition of dusts in the evaluation of pollution allows to establish the zone of influence of sources more accurately, correctly assess the exposure to the population with bearing in mind the such hygienic criteria as PM10 and PM2.5 sampling.
Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered.
Individuals engaged in work in intensive animal houses experience some of the highest rates of occupationally related respiratory symptoms. Organic dust and in particular endotoxin has been most closely associated with respiratory symptoms and lung function changes in workers. It has previously been shown that for intensive poultry operations, type of poultry housing [cage-housed (CH) versus floor-housed (FH)] can influence the levels of environmental contaminants. The goal of the study was to determine the differences in endotoxin and dust levels at different size fractions between CH and FH poultry operations.
Fifteen CH and 15 FH poultry operations were sampled for stationary measurements (area) of dust and associated endotoxin. Fractioned samples were collected utilizing Marple cascade impactors. Gravimetric and endotoxin analysis were conducted on each of the filters.
When assessed by individual Marple stage, there was significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration (endotoxin units per cubic meter) in the size fraction >9.8 µm for the FH operations whereas at the size fraction 1.6-3.5 µm, the CH operations had significantly greater airborne endotoxin concentration than the FH operations. Endotoxin concentration in the dust mass (endotoxin units per milligram) was significantly greater in the CH operations as compared to the FH operations for all size fractions >1.6 µm. As such, endotoxin in the respirable fraction accounted for 24% of the total endotoxin in the CH operations whereas it accounted for only 11% in the FH operations. There was significantly more dust in all size fractions in the FH operations as compared to the CH poultry operations.
There is more endotoxin in the presence of significantly lower dust levels in the respirable particle size fractions in CH poultry operations as compared to the FH poultry operations. This difference in respirable endotoxin may be important in relation to the differential respiratory response experienced by CH and FH poultry operation workers.
Although serious health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter = 10 µm (PM10) and = 2.5 µm (PM(2.5); fine fraction) are documented in many studies, the effects of coarse PM (PM(2.5-10)) are still under debate.
In this study, we estimated the effects of short-term exposure of PM(2.5-10) on daily mortality in Stockholm, Sweden.
We collected data on daily mortality for the years 2000 through 2008. Concentrations of PM10, PM(2.5), ozone, and carbon monoxide were measured simultaneously in central Stockholm. We used additive Poisson regression models to examine the association between daily mortality and PM2.5-10 on the day of death and the day before. Effect estimates were adjusted for other pollutants (two-pollutant models) during different seasons.
We estimated a 1.68% increase [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.20%, 3.15%] in daily mortality per 10-µg/m³ increase in PM(2.5-10) (single-pollutant model). The association with PM(2.5-10) was stronger for November through May, when road dust is most important (1.69% increase; 95% CI: 0.21%, 3.17%), compared with the rest of the year (1.31% increase; 95% CI: -2.08%, 4.70%), although the difference was not statistically significant. When adjusted for other pollutants, particularly PM(2.5), the effect estimates per 10 µg/m³ for PM(2.5-10) decreased slightly but were still higher than corresponding effect estimates for PM(2.5).
Our analysis shows an increase in daily mortality associated with elevated urban background levels of PM(2.5-10). Regulation of PM(2.5-10) should be considered, along with actions to specifically reduce PM(2.5-10) emissions, especially road dust suspension, in cities.
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