Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University and Canadian Center for Vaccinology, IWK Health Centre, 5850/5980 University Avenue, Halifax, NS, Canada B3K 6R8; Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, 722 West 168th Street, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Canadian Adverse Event Following Immunization Surveillance System (CAEFISS) receives reports via active syndromic surveillance for selected serious AEFI from the Canadian Immunization Monitoring Program Active (IMPACT) and via targeted passive surveillance from Federal/Provincial/Territorial health jurisdictions. Post-immunization seizure is a target of active and passive surveillance. Since 2009, the revised national AEFI reporting forms enable capture of terms specific to several Brighton Collaboration Case Definitions (BCCD) including generalized seizure and fever.
To evaluate feasibility of applying the BCCD for generalized seizure to adverse event following immunization (AEFI) reports collected by IMPACT and targeted passive surveillance (non-IMPACT).
Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is associated to infections and it has been suggested that vaccination can trigger the disease. However, little is known about the specific association between clinically manifest influenza/influenza vaccine and CFS/ME. As part of a registry surveillance of adverse effects after mass vaccination in Norway during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, we had the opportunity to estimate and contrast the risk of CFS/ME after infection and vaccination.
Using the unique personal identification number assigned to everybody who is registered as resident in Norway, we followed the complete Norwegian population as of October 1, 2009, through national registries of vaccination, communicable diseases, primary health, and specialist health care until December 31, 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) of CFS/ME, as diagnosed in the specialist health care services (diagnostic code G93.3 in the International Classification of Diseases, Version 10), after influenza infection and/or vaccination were estimated using Cox proportional-hazards regression.
The incidence rate of CFS/ME was 2.08 per 100,000 person-months at risk. The adjusted HR of CFS/ME after pandemic vaccination was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-1.04), while it was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.78-2.33) after being diagnosed with influenza infection during the peak pandemic period.
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection was associated with a more than two-fold increased risk of CFS/ME. We found no indication of increased risk of CFS/ME after vaccination. Our findings are consistent with a model whereby symptomatic infection, rather than antigenic stimulation may trigger CFS/ME.
Safety and immunogenicity of 2010–2011 A/H1N1pdm09-containing trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in adults previously given AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 2009 pandemic vaccine: results of a randomized trial.
Many Canadians received a novel AS03-adjuvanted vaccine during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. Longer term implications of adjuvant use were unclear: would anti-H1N1 immune responses persist at high levels and, if so, could that result in increased or unusual adverse effects upon re-exposure to H1N1pdm09 antigen in the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for 2010-11? To answer these questions, adults given AS03-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09 vaccine (Arepanrix®, GSK Canada) 9-10 mo earlier were enrolled in an evaluator-blinded, crossover trial to receive 2010-2011 non-adjuvanted TIV (Fluviral®, GSK Canada) and placebo 10 d apart, in random order. Adverse effects were monitored for 7 d after each injection. Vaccine-attributable adverse event (VAAE) rates were calculated by subtracting rates after placebo from those after vaccine. Blood was obtained pre-vaccination and 21-30 d afterward to measure hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers. In total, 326 participants were enrolled and 321 completed the study. VAAE rates were low except for myalgia (18.6%) and injection site pain (63.2%). At baseline, H1N1pdm09 titers = 40 were present in 176/325 subjects (54.2%, 95% confidence interval 48.6, 59.7), with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 37.4 (95% CI 32.8, 42.6). Post-immunization, 96.0% (95% CI 92.3, 97.8) had H1N1pdm09 titers = 40, with GMT of 167.4 (95% CI 148.7, 188.5). Responses to both influenza A strains in TIV were similar, implying no lasting effect of adjuvant exposure. In summary, titers = 40 persisted in only half the participants 9-10 mo after adjuvanted pandemic vaccine but were restored in nearly all after TIV vaccination, with minimal increase in adverse effects.
Cites: Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2002 Apr-May;11(3):189-20212051118
Cites: Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Mar 15;36(6):705-1312627354
Pneumococcal infection is a major cause of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Incidence of pneumococcal disease (PD) varies worldwide. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) displays an acceptable safety profile and has been demonstrated cost-effective in reducing burden of PD.
Approximately 100 subjects from the Russian Federation who were either 2 to 49Â y of age with increased risk for PD or =50Â years of age were enrolled into the study (NCT01734239) to receive a single dose of PPV23 administered intramuscularly. Each subject was followed for local and systemic adverse events (AEs) for 5 and 14Â days, respectively. Serious AEs were collected for 28Â d postvaccination. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to vaccination and 28Â d postvaccination for the measurement of IgG to serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F.
High proportion of subjects had =2 -fold increase in IgG following receipt of PPV23. Rates were 92.0%, 83.0%, 89.0%, 81%, 84% for serotypes 1, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F, respectively. Similar rates of responders and increases in the magnitude of immune responses were observed in both age groups (2-49, =50 ). PPV23 was generally safe and well tolerated. Injection site and systemic AEs were reported by 14.7% and 18.6% of study subjects, respectively.
PPV23 is generally safe, well tolerated, and highly immunogenic when given as a single dose to Russian individuals 50Â y of age and older, as well as Russian individuals 2 to 49Â y of age who are at high risk for PD.
This community-randomized controlled trial was initiated to assess the overall and herd effects of 2 different human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization strategies in over 80,000 girls and boys aged 12-15?y in 33 communities in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00534638). Overall, 14,838 adolescents received HPV-16/18 vaccine (2,440 boys and 12,398 girls) and 17,338 received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) vaccine (9,221 boys and 8,117 girls). In an interim analysis, vaccine safety was assessed by active monitoring and surveillance via health registry linkage. Active monitoring showed that the HPV-16/18 vaccine has acceptable safety and reactogenicity in boys. In all study participants, the observed incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of serious adverse events (SAEs) possibly related to vaccination were 54.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 34.0-82.1) in the HPV-16/18 group and 64.0 (95% CI: 43.2-91.3) in the HBV group. During the follow-up period for this interim analysis, the most common new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs; with incidence rate =15 per 100,000) in any group based on hospital discharge registry (HILMO) download were ulcerative colitis, juvenile arthritis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Crohn's disease. No increased NOAD incidences were observed in HPV-16/18 vaccine recipients compared to HBV vaccine recipients. In both the SAE possibly related- and HILMO-analyses, a lower incidence of IDDM was observed in HPV-16/18 vaccinees compared to HBV vaccinees (relative risks, 0.26 [95% CI: 0.03-1.24] and 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03-0.55], respectively).
Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.
Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20µg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5µg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).