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Abscess infections and malnutrition--a cross-sectional study of polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262831
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2014 Jun;74(4):322-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2014
Author
Mone Saeland
Margareta Wandel
Thomas Böhmer
Margaretha Haugen
Source
Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2014 Jun;74(4):322-8
Date
Jun-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abscess - epidemiology
Adolescent
Adult
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug users
Female
Fruit
Humans
Hyperhomocysteinemia - epidemiology
Male
Malnutrition - complications - epidemiology
Norway - epidemiology
Nutritional Status
Substance-Related Disorders - complications - epidemiology - etiology
Thinness
Vegetables
Vitamins - pharmacology
Young Adult
Abstract
Injection drug use and malnutrition are widespread among polydrug addicts in Oslo, Norway, but little is known about the frequency of abscess infections and possible relations to malnutrition.
To assess the prevalence of abscess infections, and differences in nutritional status between drug addicts with or without abscess infections.
A cross-sectional study of 195 polydrug addicts encompassing interview of demographics, dietary recall, anthropometric measurements and biochemical analyses. All respondents were under the influence of illicit drugs and were not participating in any drug treatment or rehabilitation program at the time of investigation.
Abscess infections were reported by 25% of the respondents, 19% of the men and 33% of the women (p = 0.025). Underweight (BMI 15 ?mol/L) was 73% in the abscess-infected group and 41% in the non-abscess-infected group (p = 0.001). The concentrations of S-25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 was very low.
The prevalence of abscess infections was 25% among the examined polydrug addicts. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessment indicated a relation between abscess infections and malnutrition.
PubMed ID
24628456 View in PubMed
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[Acceptability of harm reduction interventions: contributions of members of the population to the debate about public health ethics].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152246
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):24-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Eve Dubé
Raymond Massé
Lina Noël
Author Affiliation
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec. eve.dube@ssss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2009 Jan-Feb;100(1):24-8
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Attitude to Health
Drug Users - psychology
Female
Government Programs - ethics
Harm Reduction - ethics
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Needle-Exchange Programs - ethics
Public Health - ethics
Public Opinion
Quebec
Social Control Policies - ethics
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
To explore convergence and divergence in ethical stances of public health and of members of the population regarding acceptability of harm reduction interventions, in particular needle exchange programs.
Forty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with French-speaking residents of Quebec City. Content analysis was done to explore the views of the respondents with regard to injection drug users (IDUs) and interventions addressed to them, as well as Quebec policies on harm reduction.
Four main categories of social representations about IDUs have emerged from the discourses of the respondents. IDU were represented as: suffering from a disease (n = 17); victim of a situation that they could not control (n = 14); having chosen to use drugs (n = 12); or delinquent people (n = 6). Those social representations were associated with different ethical stances regarding acceptability of harm reduction interventions. Main divergences between respondents' ethical positions on harm reduction and public health discourses were related to the value of tolerance and its limits.
The Quebec City population interviewed in this study had a high level of tolerance regarding needle distribution to drug addicts. Applied ethics could be a useful way to understand citizens' interpretation of public health interventions.
PubMed ID
19263971 View in PubMed
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Addiction is a disease: we must change our attitudes toward addicts.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128919
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Feb 7;184(2):155
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-7-2012
Author
Matthew B Stanbrook
Source
CMAJ. 2012 Feb 7;184(2):155
Date
Feb-7-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attitude of Health Personnel
Canada
Drug Users - psychology
Humans
Stereotyping
Substance-Related Disorders - psychology
Notes
Cites: Clin Neuropharmacol. 2009 Sep-Oct;32(5):269-7619834992
Cites: CMAJ. 2011 Dec 13;183(18):E1334-4422042991
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Comment In: CMAJ. 2012 Sep 18;184(13):149922988291
Comment In: CMAJ. 2012 Apr 3;184(6):67922473931
PubMed ID
22158399 View in PubMed
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Adherence and plasma HIV RNA response to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-seropositive injection drug users in a Canadian setting.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135422
Source
AIDS Care. 2011 Aug;23(8):980-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Seonaid Nolan
M-J Milloy
Ruth Zhang
Thomas Kerr
Robert S Hogg
Julio S G Montaner
Evan Wood
Author Affiliation
BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Source
AIDS Care. 2011 Aug;23(8):980-7
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Anti-HIV Agents - therapeutic use
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active - statistics & numerical data
Canada
Cohort Studies
Drug Users - psychology
Female
HIV Infections - blood - drug therapy - psychology
Humans
Kaplan-Meier Estimate
Male
Medication Adherence
Middle Aged
Patient compliance
Proportional Hazards Models
RNA, Viral - blood - drug effects
Substance Abuse, Intravenous
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
HIV-positive individuals who use injection drugs (IDU) may have lower rates of adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, previous studies of factors associated with adherence to ART among IDU have been limited primarily to samples drawn from clinical settings and in areas with financial barriers to healthcare.We evaluated patterns of ART adherence and rates of plasma HIV RNA response among a Canadian cohort of community-recruited IDU. Using data from a community-recruited cohort of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected IDU, we investigated ART adherence patterns based on prescription refill compliance and factors associated with time to plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression (
PubMed ID
21480010 View in PubMed
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Adherence to antiretroviral medications among persons who inject drugs in transitional, low and middle income countries: an international systematic review.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268956
Source
AIDS Behav. 2015 Apr;19(4):575-83
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Jonathan Feelemyer
Don Des Jarlais
Kamyar Arasteh
Anneli Uusküla
Source
AIDS Behav. 2015 Apr;19(4):575-83
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
Brazil - epidemiology
China - epidemiology
Comorbidity
Drug Users - statistics & numerical data
Estonia - epidemiology
HIV Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology
Humans
India - epidemiology
Indonesia - epidemiology
Medication Adherence - statistics & numerical data
Russia - epidemiology
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Vietnam - epidemiology
Abstract
Adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV positive persons. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for HIV infection in transitional/low/middle income countries (TLMIC). We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting adherence to ART among persons with active injection drug use and/or histories of injection drug use in TLMIC. Meta-regression was performed to examine relationships between location, adherence measurements, and follow-up period. Fifteen studies were included from seven countries. Adherence levels ranged from 33 to 97 %; mean weighted adherence was 72 %. ART adherence was associated with different methods of measuring adherence and studies conducted in Eastern Europe and East Asia. The great heterogeneity observed precludes generalization to TLMIC as a whole. Given the critical importance of ART adherence more research is needed on ART adherence among PWID in TLMIC, including the use of standardized methods for reporting adherence to ART.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25331268 View in PubMed
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"A different atmosphere of love": a qualitative study of the experiences of participants in Evangelical substance user rehabilitation programs in the Russian Federation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature115826
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Apr;48(6):421-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2013
Author
Kenneth M Stoltzfus
David Cecil
Author Affiliation
Social Sciences Department, LCC International University, Klaipeda, Lithuania. kstoltzfus@lcc.lt
Source
Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Apr;48(6):421-8
Date
Apr-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Christianity
Drug Users - psychology
Female
Focus Groups
Humans
Male
Qualitative Research
Russia
Substance-Related Disorders - psychology - rehabilitation
Abstract
This article explores the lived experiences of individuals who have participated in faith-based substance user rehabilitation programs in the Russian Federation. The Russian Federation has high rates of alcohol and opioid dependence and a dearth of professional treatment options. In the post-Soviet period, Evangelical Christian groups have developed substance user rehabilitation programs to attempt to address substance use and its related problems. Data were collected during 2010 via focus group interviews with participants in three Evangelical rehabilitation programs in the Volga region of the Russian Federation. Themes emerging from the qualitative data analysis process were classified into three broad categories: Typical Day, Personal Background/Decision to Enter Rehabilitation, and Helpful Aspects of Rehabilitation Process.
Notes
Erratum In: Subst Use Misuse. 2013 Sep;48(12):1218
PubMed ID
23461666 View in PubMed
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Age at first alcoholic drink as predictor of current HIV sexual risk behaviors among a sample of injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who are sexual partners of IDUs, in St. Petersburg, Russia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature132619
Source
AIDS Behav. 2012 Aug;16(6):1597-604
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Nadia Abdala
Nathan B Hansen
Olga V Toussova
Tatiana V Krasnoselskikh
Andrei P Kozlov
Robert Heimer
Author Affiliation
Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520-8034, USA. nadia.abdala@yale.edu
Source
AIDS Behav. 2012 Aug;16(6):1597-604
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Drug users
Female
HIV Infections - epidemiology - transmission
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Risk-Taking
Russia - epidemiology
Sexual Behavior - statistics & numerical data
Sexual Partners
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance Abuse, Intravenous - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
This study investigates whether age at first alcoholic drink is associated with sexual risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who are sexual partners of IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia. A path analysis was used to test a model of age at first drink, age at sexual debut, age at first drug use, current substance use patterns and current sexual risk behaviors among 558 participants. Results revealed that age at first drink had an effect on multiple sex partners through age at sexual debut and injection drug use, but no effect on unprotected sex. Age at first drug use was not related to sexual risk behaviors. Investigation of age of drinking onset may provide useful information for programs to reduce sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use. Different paths leading to unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners call for different approaches to reduce sexual risk behaviors among this population.
Notes
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PubMed ID
21800183 View in PubMed
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Source
Recommendations and Reports 2(2)
Date
1 October 1998
  1 website  
Author
State of Alaska, DPH, Section of Epidemiology
Source
Recommendations and Reports 2(2)
Date
1 October 1998
Language
English
Geographic Location
U.S.
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Alaska HIV Prevention Plan
Cumulative and recent cases
Exposure categories
HIV infection
Injection drug users (IDU)
Men who have sex with men (MSM)
Partner notification services
Perinatal infection
Risk behaviors
Seroprevalence surveys
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS
Survey of Childbearing Women (SCBW)
Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS
Abstract
This report reviews data on the prevalence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Alaska, provides comparison with national data, and examines recent trends in AIDS cases. Since Alaska case numbers are relatively small, these data should be interpreted in the context of cumulative scientific knowledge about HIV/AIDS. National data cited are drawn from publications of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Online Resources
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[All doors into the healthcare system should be the right doors for the alcohol--and drug addict].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112608
Source
Laeknabladid. 2013 Jun;99(6):279
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2013

An all-embracing problem description. The Swedish drug issue as a political catalyst 1982-2000.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112855
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Nov;24(6):558-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Johan Edman
Author Affiliation
Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: johan.edman@sorad.su.se.
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Nov;24(6):558-65
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Consensus
Drug Users - legislation & jurisprudence
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Government Regulation
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Policy Making
Politics
Social Control Policies - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Control, Formal
Social Problems - legislation & jurisprudence
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
This article examines the political formulation and ideological solution of the Swedish drug problem in 1982-2000. How was the drug problem described in the Swedish parliament at the time? How serious was the problem and what solutions were proposed? What were the ideological implications of the problem description, and how was the general political and ideological solution formulated?
The empirical basis for the textual analysis consists of parliamentary bills, government bills and parliamentary records discussing the drug issue during the years 1982-2000.
In the prevailing spirit of consensus in the Swedish parliament at the time, both left-wing and right-wing parties portrayed drugs as a threat to the nation, people and the welfare state. Still, as the ideological dimension kept growing stronger, the drug question functioned even better as an arena for political discussions and ideological positions than in the 1970s.
Compared to previous decades, the problem description broadened during the 1980s and 1990s, and the drug problem could be used to support arguments on almost any topic. The drug problem became a highly politicized issue about whom or what to change when the individual and the society clashed, but also about what the individual and/or society should be changed into.
PubMed ID
23790617 View in PubMed
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152 records – page 1 of 16.