Skip header and navigation

Refine By

119 records – page 1 of 12.

Acetaminophen availability increases in Canada with no increase in the incidence of reports of inpatient hospitalizations with acetaminophen overdose and acute liver toxicity.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature177413
Source
Am J Ther. 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):443-52
Publication Type
Article
Author
Mary Jane Prior
Kimberly Cooper
Peter Cummins
Debra Bowen
Author Affiliation
Research and Development, McNeil Consumer and Specialty Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, Pennsylvania 19034, USA. mprior@mccus.jnj.com
Source
Am J Ther. 2004 Nov-Dec;11(6):443-52
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acetaminophen - adverse effects
Adolescent
Adult
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems - statistics & numerical data
Aged
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic - adverse effects
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Drug Overdose
Drug Utilization - statistics & numerical data
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Drug-Induced Liver Injury - epidemiology - etiology
Hospital records
Humans
Middle Aged
Abstract
In September 1999, several Canadian provinces had place-of-sale restrictions lifted that had limited the sale of acetaminophen >325 mg and packages >24 tablets (any strength) to pharmacies only. This allowed the sale of all strengths of immediate-release acetaminophen in all package sizes in nonpharmacy locations. This study's purpose was to explore the effect that lifting restrictions on acetaminophen place of sale may have had on reported hospitalizations in Canada related to acetaminophen overdose toxicity. Using hospital discharge data, provinces with no preexisting restrictions on place of sale were compared with those in which restrictions were lifted in September 1999. Cases of reported APAP overdose included ICD-9/9-CM code 965.4, ICD-9 code E850.2, or ICD-9-CM code E850.4. Cases with reported acute liver toxicity included ICD-9/9-CM codes 570, 572.2, 572.4, V42.7, or procedure code 50.5. There were no significant differences between the 1.5-year periods pre- and post-September 1999 in annual incidence rates per 100,000 persons ages >/=12 years of hospitalizations reported with acetaminophen overdose, either overall or limited to those with death as an outcome, or in hospitalization reports with both acetaminophen overdose and acute liver toxicity, either overall (provinces with no restrictions: pre = 0.70, post = 0.80, P = 0.6328; provinces with restrictions lifted in September 1999: pre = 0.49, post = 0.47, P = 0.8649) or limited to those with death as an outcome (provinces with no restrictions: pre = 0.22, post = 0.12, P = 0.3030; provinces with restrictions lifted in September 1999: pre = 0.13, post = 0.09, P = 0.3589). In conclusion, the decision to lift Canadian place-of-sale restrictions increased acetaminophen availability and did not increase the rate of reported hospitalizations related to acetaminophen overdose toxicity.
PubMed ID
15543083 View in PubMed
Less detail

Alcohol-related mortality and tribal alcohol legislation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature11104
Source
J Rural Health. 1997;13(1):38-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
1997
Author
M G Landen
Author Affiliation
Section of Epidemiology, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, Anchorage 99524, USA.
Source
J Rural Health. 1997;13(1):38-44
Date
1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcoholism - mortality
Child
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Indians, North American - statistics & numerical data
Middle Aged
Northwestern United States - epidemiology
Public Policy
United States - epidemiology
United States Indian Health Service
Abstract
American Indian alcohol-related mortality rates differ widely among tribes, even within the same geographic region. In addition, there are many different legislative approaches to alcohol beverage control employed by tribes. This paper explores the association between alcohol legislation and alcohol-related mortality rates among American Indian tribes located in a region of the northwestern United States from 1979 to 1990. Both an unweighted analysis of alcohol-related mortality and a weighted analysis, using the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) approach, are used. Alcohol-related mortality rates did not differ significantly between reservations with alcohol prohibition statutes or where alcohol was legal in this region. However, evidence suggests that more comprehensive tribal alcohol legislation may be correlated with lower alcohol-related mortality among American Indian tribes.
PubMed ID
10167764 View in PubMed
Less detail

An all-embracing problem description. The Swedish drug issue as a political catalyst 1982-2000.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature112855
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Nov;24(6):558-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2013
Author
Johan Edman
Author Affiliation
Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: johan.edman@sorad.su.se.
Source
Int J Drug Policy. 2013 Nov;24(6):558-65
Date
Nov-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Consensus
Drug Users - legislation & jurisprudence
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Government Regulation
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Policy Making
Politics
Social Control Policies - legislation & jurisprudence
Social Control, Formal
Social Problems - legislation & jurisprudence
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology - prevention & control - therapy
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
This article examines the political formulation and ideological solution of the Swedish drug problem in 1982-2000. How was the drug problem described in the Swedish parliament at the time? How serious was the problem and what solutions were proposed? What were the ideological implications of the problem description, and how was the general political and ideological solution formulated?
The empirical basis for the textual analysis consists of parliamentary bills, government bills and parliamentary records discussing the drug issue during the years 1982-2000.
In the prevailing spirit of consensus in the Swedish parliament at the time, both left-wing and right-wing parties portrayed drugs as a threat to the nation, people and the welfare state. Still, as the ideological dimension kept growing stronger, the drug question functioned even better as an arena for political discussions and ideological positions than in the 1970s.
Compared to previous decades, the problem description broadened during the 1980s and 1990s, and the drug problem could be used to support arguments on almost any topic. The drug problem became a highly politicized issue about whom or what to change when the individual and the society clashed, but also about what the individual and/or society should be changed into.
PubMed ID
23790617 View in PubMed
Less detail

"An improved system for narcotic control in the operating room".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229121
Source
Can J Anaesth. 1990 May;37(4 Pt 2):S83
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1990
Author
J A Johnson
W E Code
P G Duncan
Author Affiliation
Department of Pharmacy, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Source
Can J Anaesth. 1990 May;37(4 Pt 2):S83
Date
May-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Anesthesia
Drug Utilization
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Inventories, Hospital
Narcotics
Operating Rooms
Pharmacy Service, Hospital
Saskatchewan
PubMed ID
2361321 View in PubMed
Less detail

An overview of Canadian and U.S. approaches to drug regulation and responses to postmarket adverse drug reactions.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature114900
Source
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013;7(2):313-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Richard Y Cheung
Sarah H Goodwin
Author Affiliation
Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP, 333 Bay St., Suite 2400, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5H 2T6. rcheung@fasken.com
Source
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2013;7(2):313-20
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence - methods - organization & administration - trends
Humans
Hypoglycemic agents - therapeutic use
Patient Safety - legislation & jurisprudence
Product Surveillance, Postmarketing - methods - trends
Thiazolidinediones - therapeutic use
United States
United States Food and Drug Administration - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration
Abstract
Over the years, drug products, including those indicated for diabetes, have been withdrawn from the marketplace because of quality concerns and/or severe adverse drug reactions. While the drug regulatory process is designed to detect, among other things, adverse drug reactions before a drug receives marketing authorization, for various reasons, premarket detection of all potential adverse reactions associated with a drug may not be possible. As such, regulatory authorities must also react to and manage adverse reactions identified at the postmarket stage. In this article, we provide a general overview of drug regulation in Canada and the United States and consider an example of a drug indicated for the treatment of diabetes and how newly identified potential safety concerns were managed in the postmarket environment.
Notes
Cites: N Engl J Med. 2007 Jun 14;356(24):2457-7117517853
Cites: J Am Board Fam Pract. 2001 Sep-Oct;14(5):362-711572541
PubMed ID
23566987 View in PubMed
Less detail

Assessing abuse liability during drug development: changing standards and expectations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature159216
Source
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):622-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2008
Author
K A Schoedel
E M Sellers
Author Affiliation
Clinical Pharmacology Group, DecisionLine Clinical Research Corporation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. k.schoedel@dlcrc.com
Source
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Apr;83(4):622-6
Date
Apr-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Central Nervous System Depressants - adverse effects
Central Nervous System Stimulants - adverse effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Design
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
European Union
Humans
Psychotropic Drugs - adverse effects
Substance-Related Disorders - etiology
Time Factors
United States
United States Food and Drug Administration
Abstract
As public health concerns have changed, regulatory expectations for assessing abuse liability of new central nervous system (CNS) drugs have increased. All CNS-active drugs with any properties indicating stimulant, depressant, hallucinogenic, or mood-elevating effects will require an evaluation of abuse liability. Abuse liability assessment involves the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on chemistry and tampering, animal behavioral pharmacology, clinical trial adverse events (AEs), diversion and overdose, and potentially reinforcing (subjective) effects in recreational drug users.
PubMed ID
18212799 View in PubMed
Less detail

Atmospheric pressure: Russian drug policy as a driver for violations of the UN Convention against Torture and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267471
Source
Health Hum Rights. 2013;15(1):E135-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Mikhail Golichenko
Anya Sarang
Source
Health Hum Rights. 2013;15(1):E135-43
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drug Users - legislation & jurisprudence
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Policy - legislation & jurisprudence
Health Services Accessibility - legislation & jurisprudence
Human Rights - legislation & jurisprudence
Humans
Prejudice - legislation & jurisprudence
Russia
United Nations
Abstract
Responding to problematic drug use in Russia, the government promotes a policy of "zero tolerance" for drug use and "social pressure" against people who use drugs (PWUD), rejecting effective drug treatment and harm reduction measures.
In order to assess Russian drug policy against the UN Convention Against Torture and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, we reviewed published data from government and non-governmental organizations, scientific publications, media reports, and interviews with PWUD.
Drug-dependent people (DDP) are the most vulnerable group of PWUD. The state strictly controls all aspects of drug dependence. Against this background, the state promotes hatred towards PWUD via state-controlled media, corroding public perception of PWUD and of their entitlement to human rights. This vilification of PWUD is accompanied by their widespread ill-treatment in health care facilities, police detention, and prisons.
In practice, zero tolerance for drug use translates to zero tolerance for PWUD. Through drug policy, the government deliberately amplifies harms associated with drug use by causing PWUD (especially DDP) additional pain and suffering. It exploits the particular vulnerability of DDP, subjecting them to unscientific and ideologically driven methods of drug prevention and treatment and denying access to essential medicines and services. State policy is to legitimize and encourage societal ill-treatment of PWUD.
The government intentionally subjects approximately 1.7 million people to pain, suffering, and humiliation. Aimed at punishing people for using drugs and coercing people into abstinence, the official drug policy disregards the chronic nature of drug dependence. It also ignores the ineffectiveness of punitive measures in achieving the purposes for which they are officially used, that is, public safety and public health. Simultaneously, the government impedes measures that would eliminate the pain and suffering of DDP, prevent infectious diseases, and lower mortality, which amount to systematic violations of Russia's human rights obligations.
PubMed ID
25006082 View in PubMed
Less detail

[Background and perspectives of opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic pain in cancer patients in Russia].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265129
Source
Anesteziol Reanimatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;60(1):19-25
Publication Type
Article
Author
G R Abuzarova
V E Khoronenko
R R Sarmanaeva
Source
Anesteziol Reanimatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;60(1):19-25
Language
Russian
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Analgesics, Opioid - supply & distribution - therapeutic use
Chronic Pain - drug therapy
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence
Government Regulation
Neoplasms - complications
Pain Management - methods - trends
Palliative Care - legislation & jurisprudence - organization & administration - statistics & numerical data
Russia
Abstract
The article deals with an analysis of availability of narcotic analgesics for the patients in the Russian Federation. The analysis was based on datafrom official sources on the scopes of opioids delivery in different regions of the Russian Federation and showed an extremely limited availability of narcotic analgesics for the patients in the Russian Federation. We found that availability of narcotic analgesics in Russia is hundreds times lower than the same indexes in European countries with various level of economic activity and in the USA. The analysis showed ten most progressive Russian regions where the use of opioids in the noninvasive forms has become part of systematic clinical practice according to WHO recommendations as well as 10 ten most backward regions where these drugs are hardly used despite of high figures of case death rates from cancer. We made a list of most needed modern Russian and internationally produced drugs according to international data and personal experience. Drugs from this list can be effectually used for the chronic pain therapy in oncology. The most advanced drugs that are soon will be produced are also named. The article describes high priority measures that have already been done to improve current situation and measures to be executed in the future.
PubMed ID
26027219 View in PubMed
Less detail

Barriers to access to medical cannabis for Canadians living with HIV/AIDS.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature163975
Source
AIDS Care. 2007 Apr;19(4):500-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2007
Author
L. Belle-Isle
A. Hathaway
Author Affiliation
Canadian AIDS Society, Otawa, Ontario. lynneb@cdnaids.ca
Source
AIDS Care. 2007 Apr;19(4):500-6
Date
Apr-2007
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Canada
Cannabis
Drug and Narcotic Control - legislation & jurisprudence - statistics & numerical data
Focus Groups
HIV Infections - drug therapy
Health Services Accessibility - standards
Health Services Needs and Demand - standards
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pain - prevention & control - psychology
Phytotherapy - psychology
Self Medication
Abstract
North American studies suggest that as many as one-third of people living with HIV/AIDS self-medicate with cannabis for relief of physical and stress-related symptoms. Although cannabis remains a controlled substance in Canada, legal access has been granted to people with HIV/AIDS and other serious illness under the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) since 2001. Several years into the programme, however, few Canadians ( approximately 1400) have obtained MMAR approval, suggesting that substantial obstacles remain. This paper reports findings from a 2005 survey (n=197) and focus groups conducted to identify barriers to access to medical cannabis among people living with HIV/AIDS. Most (86%) respondents who reported using cannabis as medicine continue to rely on illegal sources for their supply. They cited lack of information, product quality concerns, and an onerous, confusing application process among other problems mentioned with the MMAR. The findings are discussed in terms of policy suggestions for facilitating access to a legal source of cannabis for medical users.
PubMed ID
17453590 View in PubMed
Less detail

119 records – page 1 of 12.