The role of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) in Crohn's disease is unclear. The outcome of the first course of 5-ASA monotherapy with emphasis on 5-ASA dependency was retrospectively assessed in consecutive cohort of 537 Crohn's disease patients diagnosed 1953-2007.
Following outcome definitions were used: Immediate outcome (30 days after 5-ASA start) defined as complete/partial response (total regression/improvement of symptoms) and no response (no regression of symptoms with a need of corticosteroids, immunomodulator or surgery). Long-term outcome defined as prolonged response (still in complete/partial response 1 year after induction of response); 5-ASA dependency (relapse on stable/reduced dose of 5-ASA requiring dose escalation to regain response or relapse =1 year after 5-ASA cessation regaining response after 5-ASA re-introduction).
One hundred sixty-five (31%) patients had monotherapy with 5-ASA. In 50% 5-ASA monotherapy was initiated =1 year after diagnosis (range 0-49 years). Complete/partial response was obtained in 75% and no response in 25% of patients. Thirty-six percent had prolonged response, 23% developed 5-ASA dependency and 38% were non-responders in long-term outcome. Female gender had higher probability to develop prolonged response or 5-ASA dependency (OR 2.89, 95%CI: 1.08-7.75, p=0.04). The median duration (range) of 5-ASA monotherapy was 34 months (1-304) in prolonged responders, 63 (6-336) in 5-ASA dependent and 2 (0-10) in non-responders.
A selected phenotype of Crohn's disease patients may profit from 5-ASA. Fifty-nine percent of patients obtained long-term benefit with 23% becoming 5-ASA dependent. Prospective studies are warranted to assess the role of 5-ASA in Crohn's disease.
Changes in the proportion of penicillin-non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSP) isolates during an intervention programme were evaluated by phenotypic analysis of all initial isolates with penicillin MIC > or =0.5 microg/ml (n=1248) collected 1995-2004. During the study period, the proportion of such isolates was fairly constant (12-19%), and there was no statistically significant variation in the proportion of total PNSP cases (MIC > or =0.12 microg/ml) or PNSP with MIC > or =0.5 microg/ml, with the exception of an increase in 2004. Analysis restricted to clinical cases revealed no statistically significant changes. 23 different serogroups were found, and serogroup 9 isolates accounted for almost half of the PNSP cases. Only minor changes in phenotypic characteristics occurred in the other serogroups, which indicates that the increase in PNSP in 2004 was not due to import of a new resistant clone. Antibiotic consumption is considered to be an important risk factor for penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae. After initiation of the intervention programme in Malmö, overall prescribing of antibiotics decreased 28%, and the reduction was even greater among children (52%). In conclusion, the proportion of PNSP isolates in Malmö has remained stable, despite the intervention programme and decreased consumption of antibiotics.
The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population has traditionally been investigated through population-based epidemiological studies. A different approach is the combination of clinical epidemiological (CE) data and the World Health Organization-defined drug utilization research (DUR) method. The CE-DUR method was applied in Denmark to estimate the prevalence of contact allergy in the general population and compare it with the prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. Contact allergy prevalence estimates ranging from very liberal ('worst case') to conservative ('best case') assumptions were based on patch test reading data in combination with an estimate of the number of persons eligible for patch testing each year based on sales data of the 'standard series'. The estimated 10-year prevalence of contact allergy ranged between 7.3% and 12.9% for adult Danes older than 18 years. The 10-year prevalence of contact allergy measured by CE-DUR was slightly lower than previous prevalence estimates from the Glostrup allergy studies. This could probably be explained by a decrease in nickel allergy. The CE-DUR approach holds the potential of being an efficient and easy monitoring method of contact allergy prevalence.
The introduction of second-generation antipsychotic drugs during the 1990s is widely believed to have adversely affected mortality of patients with schizophrenia. Our aim was to establish the long-term contribution of antipsychotic drugs to mortality in such patients.
Nationwide registers in Finland were used to compare the cause-specific mortality in 66 881 patients versus the total population (5.2 million) between 1996, and 2006, and to link these data with the use of antipsychotic drugs. We measured the all-cause mortality of patients with schizophrenia in outpatient care during current and cumulative exposure to any antipsychotic drug versus no use of these drugs, and exposure to the six most frequently used antipsychotic drugs compared with perphenazine use.
Although the proportional use of second-generation antipsychotic drugs rose from 13% to 64% during follow-up, the gap in life expectancy between patients with schizophrenia and the general population did not widen between 1996 (25 years), and 2006 (22.5 years). Compared with current use of perphenazine, the highest risk for overall mortality was recorded for quetiapine (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.82), and the lowest risk for clozapine (0.74, 0.60-0.91; p=0.0045 for the difference between clozapine vs perphenazine, and p
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Nov 7;374(9701):1591; author reply 1592-319897117
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Nov 7;374(9701):1591; author reply 1592-319897118
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Aug 22;374(9690):590-219595448
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Nov 7;374(9701):1592; author reply 1592-319897121
Comment In: Lancet. 2009 Nov 7;374(9701):1592; author reply 1592-319897120
Purinergic signaling plays an important role in inflammation and vascular integrity, but little is known about purinergic mechanisms during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans.
The objective of this study is to study markers of purinergic signaling in a cohort of patients with peripheral artery disease.
Plasma ATP and ADP levels and serum nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (NTPDase1/CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activities were measured in 226 patients with stable peripheral artery disease admitted for nonurgent invasive imaging and treatment. The major findings were that ATP, ADP, and CD73 values were higher in atherosclerotic patients than in controls without clinically evident peripheral artery disease (P
In January 1994, the Health Service published its statistics about pregnancy prevention and abortion in 1991 and 1992. The number of legal abortions was 19,729 in 1991 and 18,833 in 1992, which was the lowest figure since the law was introduced about elective abortion in 1973. 2623 fewer abortions were carried out in 1992 than five years before. The general abortion rate decreased from 15.8 in 1990 to 14.9 in 1992 (it was the highest in 1975 with 23.7). The age-specific abortion rate fell mostly in the 18-29 age group, with fewer in the 15-19 and 30-34 age groups. The number of children who were born to women over 40 increased from 390 in 1982 to 864 in 1992, while the birth rate of women under 20 decreased to almost half. The abortion rate was the highest in large cities, it was about 2.5 times higher than in the county of Ringkobing, which had the lowest rate, especially in the age groups under 25 years. The combined abortion rate (per 1000 women of reproductive age) was 578 in 1982, 540 in 1990, and 505 in 1992. 97.5% of abortions were performed within 12 weeks of pregnancy in accordance with the abortion law. 2% of abortions were carried out because of the woman's health or for social indications. 80% of abortions were performed in the 10th week of pregnancy mostly with vacuum aspiration. Complications decreased compared to previous years, and made up 2.6% of all abortions in 1992, mainly bleeding and, for 1/5 of them, inflammatory conditions. Half of the women who underwent an abortion in 1992 had given birth to at least one living child, 8% to more than three. Half of the 20% of women who could given birth but chose abortion had given birth in the previous two years and 27% within less than a year before abortion. The number of spontaneous abortions was 10,717 in 1991 and 10,605 in 1992, about 1000 fewer than in 1990. The number of male sterilizations fell from 2784 in 1991 to 1722 in 1992, and female sterilizations from 4777 to 4429. About 13 million condoms and 16,000 IUDs were sold, and about 250,000 Danish women used oral contraceptives.
Under-treatment of pain is frequently reported, especially among seniors, with chronic non-cancer pain most likely to be under-treated. Legislation regarding the prescribing/dispensing of opioid analgesics (including multiple prescription programs [MPP]) may impede access to needed analgesics.
To describe access and intensity of use of analgesics among older Manitobans by health region.
A cross-sectional study of non-Aboriginal non-institutionalized Manitoba residents over 65 years of age during April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003 was conducted using the Pharmaceutical Claims data and the Cancer Registry from the province of Manitoba. Access to analgesics (users/1000/Yr) and intensity of use (using defined daily dose [DDD] methodology) were calculated for non-opioid analgesics, opioids, and multiple-prescription-program opioids [MPP-opioids]. Usage was categorized by age, gender, and stratified by cancer diagnosis. Age-sex standardized rates of prevalence and intensity are reported for the eleven health regions of Manitoba.
Thirty-four percent of older Manitobans accessed analgesics during the study period. Female gender, increasing age, and a cancer diagnosis were associated with greater access and intensity of use of all classes of analgesics. Age-sex standardized access and intensity measures revealed the highest overall analgesic use in the most rural / remote regions of the province. However, these same regions had the lowest use of opioids, and MPP-opioids among residents lacking a cancer diagnosis.
This population-based study of analgesic use suggests that there may be variations in use of opioids and other analgesics depending on an urban or rural residence. The impact of programs such as the MPP program requires further study to describe its impact on analgesic use.
Access to new therapies in hospitals depends upon both clinical trial evidence and local Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) committee approval. The process of formulary evaluation by P&T committees is not well-understood.
To describe the formulary decision-making process in Canadian hospitals for cardiovascular medications recently made available on the Canadian market.
Postal survey of hospital pharmacy directors in all Canadian hospitals with more than 50 beds. Target drugs included abciximab, enoxaparin, dalteparin, clopidogrel, eptifibatide and tirofiban.
Of 428 surveys mailed, responses were received from 164 P&T committees representing 350 hospitals for an effective response rate of 82%. While physicians make up the largest proportion of committee membership, pharmacists play an influential role. Information most commonly cited as influencing formulary decisions included published clinical trials (97%), regional guidelines (90%), pharmacoeconomic data (84%), decisions at peer hospitals (73%) and local opinion leaders (60%). However, this information was often not required on formulary applications. Approval timelines varied widely for target medications but there were no regional, hospital or P&T committee characteristics that were independent predictors of early formulary application or approval.
There is wide variability in the time taken for Canadian institutions to adopt new cardiovascular therapies, which is not explained by regional, hospital or P&T committee characteristics. Standardization of the formulary application and evaluation processes, including sharing of information amongst institutions, would lead to broader understanding of the applicable issues, more objectivity and improved efficiency.