To assess the use of acute pancreatitis (AP)-associated drugs in patients with AP, the relation between sales of these drugs and the incidence of AP, and the potential impact on AP severity and recurrence.
All patients with incident AP between 2003 and 2012, in a well-defined area, were retrospectively identified. Data regarding AP etiology, severity, and recurrence and use of AP-associated drugs were extracted from medical records. Drugs were classified according to an evidence-based classification system. Annual drug sales data were obtained from the Swedish drug administration service.
Overall, 1457 cases of incident AP were identified. Acute pancreatitis-associated drug users increased from 32% in 2003 to 51% in 2012, reflecting increasing user rates in the general population. The incidence of AP increased during the study period but was not related to AP-associated drug user rates (P > 0.05). Recurrent AP occurred in 23% but was unrelated to AP-associated drug use (P > 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for comorbidity, AP-associated drug use was not related to AP severity (P > 0.05).
Use of AP-associated drugs is increasingly frequent in patients with AP. However, it does not have any major impact on the observed epidemiological changes in occurrence, severity, or recurrence of AP.
Divorce is associated with an increased probability of a depressive episode, but the causation of events remains unclear. Adaptive models of depression propose that depression is a social strategy in part, whereas non-adaptive models tend to propose a diathesis-stress mechanism. We compare an adaptive evolutionary model of depression to three alternative non-adaptive models with respect to their ability to explain the temporal pattern of depression around the time of divorce. Register-based data (304,112 individuals drawn from a random sample of 11% of Finnish people) on antidepressant purchases is used as a proxy for depression. This proxy affords an unprecedented temporal resolution (a 3-monthly prevalence estimates over 10 years) without any bias from non-compliance, and it can be linked with underlying episodes via a statistical model. The evolutionary-adaptation model (all time periods with risk of divorce are depressogenic) was the best quantitative description of the data. The non-adaptive stress-relief model (period before divorce is depressogenic and period afterwards is not) provided the second best quantitative description of the data. The peak-stress model (periods before and after divorce can be depressogenic) fit the data less well, and the stress-induction model (period following divorce is depressogenic and the preceding period is not) did not fit the data at all. The evolutionary model was the most detailed mechanistic description of the divorce-depression link among the models, and the best fit in terms of predicted curvature; thus, it offers most rigorous hypotheses for further study. The stress-relief model also fit very well and was the best model in a sensitivity analysis, encouraging development of more mechanistic models for that hypothesis.
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1521-9; quiz 162217898343
Authors investigated, cross-nationally, the factors, including demographic, psychiatric (including cognitive), physical, and behavioral, determining whether older people take their prescribed medication. Older adults are prescribed more medication than any other group, and poor adherence is a common reason for non-response to medication.
Researchers interviewed 3,881 people over age 65 who receive home care services in 11 countries, administering a structured interview in participants' homes. The main outcome measure was the percentage of participants not adherent to medication.
In all, 12.5% of people (N=456) reported that they were not fully adherent to medication. Non-adherence was predicted by problem drinking (OR=3.6), not having a doctor review their medication (OR=3.3), greater cognitive impairment (OR=1.4 for every one-point increase in impairment), good physical health (OR=1.2), resisting care (OR=2.1), being unmarried (OR=2.3), and living in the Czech Republic (OR=4.7) or Germany (OR=1.4).
People who screen positive for problem drinking and who have dementia (often undiagnosed) are less likely to adhere to medication. Therefore, doctors should consider dementia and problem drinking when prescribing for older adults. Interventions to improve adherence in older adults might be more effective if targeted at these groups. It is possible that medication-review enhances adherence by improving the doctor-patient relationship or by emphasizing the need for medications.
To assess the occurrence and pattern of adverse drug reactions as a cause for acute hospital admission.
In 681 randomly selected patients, acutely admitted to a clinic of internal medicine at a Swedish university hospital, information was collected from their medical records about current symptoms and use of drugs, previous diseases and the results of medical investigations and tests. In addition, a standardized interview according to a questionnaire was carried out. A group of experts in clinical pharmacology assessed the data obtained from the patients' case records and the results of the interviews, and then, according to WHO criteria, judged the probability that an adverse drug reaction could have caused or contributed to the actual admission to hospital.
Out of the 681 cases included, 94 (13.8%) had symptoms and signs that were judged as drug-related and that had caused or contributed to the admission. Eighty-two patients (12.0%) had altogether 99 symptoms that were classified as adverse drug reactions. Of these, 91% were type A reactions. The relationship between the medication and the reaction was judged certain in eight, probable in 17, and possible in 74 cases. The most common adverse drug reactions were cardiovascular (36.3%). Twelve patients (1.8%) had symptoms indicating intoxications.
The prevalence of drug-related problems causing or contributing to admission to a clinic of internal medicine is high and is dominated by type A reactions, i.e. reactions in principle predictable and preventable. This implies a possibility to increase drug safety by preventive measures.
Antidepressant utilization can be used as an indicator of appropriate treatment for major depression. The objective of this study was to characterize antidepressant utilization in Canada, including the relationships of antidepressant use with sociodemographic variables, past-year and lifetime depression, number of past depressive episodes, and other possible indications for antidepressants.
We examined data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Cycle 1.2. The CCHS was a nationally representative mental health survey (N=36,984) conducted in 2002 that included a diagnostic instrument for past-year and lifetime major depressive episodes and other psychiatric disorders and a record of past-year antidepressant use.
Overall, 5.8% of Canadians were taking antidepressants, higher than the annual prevalence of major depressive episode (4.8%) in the survey. Among persons with a past-year major depressive episode, the frequency of antidepressant use was 40.4%. After application of adjustments for probable successful outcomes of treatment, the estimated frequency of antidepressant use for major depression was more than 50%. Frequency of antidepressant treatment among those with a history of depression but without a past-year episode increased with the number of previous episodes. Among those taking antidepressants over the past year, only 33.1% had had a past-year episode of major depression. Migraine, fibromyalgia, anxiety disorder, or past depression was present in more than 60% of those taking antidepressants without a past-year episode of depression.
The CCHS results suggest that antidepressant use has increased substantially since the early 1990s, and also that these medications are employed extensively for indications other than depression.
To investigate the associations between age, gender, systemic diseases, medications, labial and whole salivary flow rates and oral and ocular dryness in older people.
Symptoms of oral and ocular dryness, systemic diseases, medications (coded according to the Anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered, and unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 668 randomly selected community-dwelling elderly aged 65-95.
Presence of oral (12%) and ocular (11%) dryness was positively correlated. Oral dryness was associated with low UWS, SWS and LS, and ocular dryness with low UWS and SWS. Oral and ocular dryness was related to female gender, but not to age. Only four persons in the healthy and nonmedicated subgroups reported oral and ocular dryness. The numbers of diseases and medications were higher in the older age groups and associated with oral and ocular dryness, low UWS, SWS and LS. On average, women were slightly older, reported more oral and ocular dryness and had lower UWS, SWS, LS and higher numbers of diseases and medications. High prevalence and odds ratios for oral dryness were associated with metabolic, respiratory and neurological diseases and intake of thyroid hormones, respiratory agents (primarily glucocorticoids), psycholeptics and/or psychoanaleptics, antineoplastics, proton pump inhibitors, antidiabetics, loop diuretics, antispasmodics, quinine and bisphosphonates. Ocular dryness was especially associated with neurological diseases and intake of psycholeptics and/or psychoanaleptics. Intake of magnesium hydroxide, antithrombotics, cardiac agents, thiazides, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II antagonists, statins, glucosamine, paracetamol/opioids, ophthalmologicals and certain combination therapies was related to oral and ocular dryness.
In older people, oral and ocular dryness are associated with low salivary flow rates, specific as well as high number of diseases and medications, but neither with age and gender per se nor with tobacco and alcohol consumption. New detailed information concerning associations between medications and oral and ocular dryness has been obtained using the ATC classification system.
To determine the longitudinal development of drug use in very old adults.
Longitudinal cohort study with waves in 1998, 2000, 2002, and 2005.
Nationwide study in Denmark.
All living Danes born in 1905 were approached in 1998; 2,262 responded at baseline.
Self-reported use of regularly taken drugs. Mean and median number of drugs and growth curve models were used to identify the change in number of drugs as the cohort aged from 92 to 100.
The within-person use of drugs increased with age for women (0.19 per year; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.15-0.24) and men (0.15 per year; 95% CI = 0.06-0.24). Persons leaving the study prematurely had higher baseline values and a steeper increase in their annual use of drugs. The population-level mean number of drugs increased from baseline (3.6 drugs) to the first follow-up (4.1 drugs) but thereafter remained stable at approximately 4 drugs. Women used more drugs than men at all waves.
In this first longitudinal study of drug use in nonagenarians, individuals used an increasing number of drugs as they aged. This increase is difficult to detect in cross-sectional analyses of the population-level mean. More efforts to understand what is reasonable prescribing at these older ages are needed.
To evaluate the characteristics and quality of adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports submitted by pharmacists, and thereby assess the possible contribution of pharmacists to the spontaneous reporting system for ADRs in Norway.
An open, prospective study was conducted where dispensing pharmacists from 39 pharmacies were encouraged to report ADRs over a 3-month period. The submitted ADR reports were compared to reports by physicians from the same time period. All reports were evaluated for selected characteristics, that is distribution of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification codes of suspected drugs, distribution of ADRs according to system-organ classes and the quality of the reports.
A total of 118 reports covering 274 ADRs received from the pharmacists were compared to 109 ADR reports with 304 ADRs submitted by physicians. Pharmacists more often reported ADRs related to cardiovascular drugs, alimentary tract and metabolism drugs and respiratory drugs, whereas physicians more frequently reported ADRs related to musculoskeletal drugs and antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents. ADRs reported by pharmacists more frequently described gastrointestinal reactions while physicians reported more ADRs in relation to the cardiovascular and blood system. Whereas 68% of the physicians' reports were classified as serious, only 5% of the pharmacists' reports were serious. More than 50% of the reports submitted by pharmacists concerned ADRs following a generic substitution, in contrast to only 2% of the physicians' reports. The pharmacists' reports were found to be of a lower documentation grade. However, there was no substantial difference in a subjective assessment of the quality of information in the reports submitted by the two categories of health professionals.
Pharmacists submit valuable ADR reports which provide information complimentary to physicians' reports. This emphasises that pharmacist ADR reporting might constitute an important addition to the spontaneous reporting system.